UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
Start | FAQ | About

QR Code Link :

Type :article
Subject :GE Environmental Sciences
ISSN :2289-4470
Main Author :Dhaif Allah Ali Ahmed, Md Hashim Noorazuan,
Title :Analysis of meteorological drought in Tihama Plain, Yemen using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (IR)
Place of Production :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
Year of Publication :2016
PDF Full Text :Login required to access this item.

Abstract :
Meteorological drought occurs when precipitation rate is less than usual for a period of time in affected areas. This article aims to analyse the meteorological drought in the Tihama Plain, as one of the most important agricultural areas in Yemen contributing 42 percent to the total agricultural production in the country. The study attempts to find out if the plain is currently facing drought conditions through analysing the rainfall data obtained from five meteorological stations for the past 30 years (1980-2010). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) method normally gives best results regardless of other climatic parameters such as humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, potential evapotranspiration and sun hours as it gives accurate result using only precipitation data. The reason beyond using SPI method is that its results are effective and they are similar to the actual drought situation with some exception of the extreme condition of severe drought. SPI was calculated using 3 months’ time scale from the monthly precipitation record. Then, the results were classified to determine the severity of drought (mild, moderate, severe and very severe) based on the SPI values. The results showed that the region faces the risk of drought, where the percentage of drought severity reached 47.43 percent in all the categories (mild 39.12%, moderate 5.41%, severe 1.84%, and very severe 1.06%). It was found that the eastern part of the region is more vulnerable to drought.


1.ACSAD/ISDR. (2001). Drought Vulnerability in the Arab Region: Case Study - drought in Syria. Damascus and Cairo. Available from: 2. Alkatany, Y.A. (2010). Environmental problems associated with climate in the middle part of Tihama Plain in Yemen Republic using GIS (PhD dissertation) Department of Geography, Cairo University, Egypt. 3. Almedeij, J. (2014). Drought analysis for Kuwait using standardized precipitation index. The Scientific World Journal, Available from: 4. Al-Timimi Y.K & Monim, H (2014). Drought assessment in Iraq using analysis of standardized precipitation index (SPI). Iraqi Journal of Physics, 12(23), 36-43. 5. Assage, A.M. (1998(. Climate in Yemen. Ebadi Center for Studies and Publications: Sana'a. 6. Bogan, N. (2014). Effective Drought Management for Sustained Livelihoods in the Middle East (Master Thesis) Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University. 7. Cai G, Du M. & Liu, Y. (2011). Regional drought monitoring and analyzing using MODIS data-A case study in Yunnan Province. Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture, 243-251. 8. Ceglar A., Zalika C., Lucka K., (2008). Analysis of meteorological drought in Slovenia with two drought indices, BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. 9. Dhaifallah, A.A. (2012). Spatial Variation of desertification in Hudeidah Governorate (Master Thesis) Department of Geography, Thamar University, Yemen. 10. El Kharraz, J., El-Sadek, A., Ghaffour, N. & Mino, E. (2012). Water scarcity and drought in WANA countries. Procedia Engineering, 33, 14-29. 11. ESCWA. (Economic and Social commission for Western Asia) (2005). ESCWA Water Development Report 1: Vulnerability of the Region to Socio-Economic Drought. New York: United Nation. Available from: 12. Hayes. M.J., Svoboda, M.D., Wilhite, D.A. & Vanyarkho, O.V. (1999). Monitoring the 1996 drought using the standardized precipitation index. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 80(3), 429-438. 13. Kaniewski, D., Van Campo, E. & Weiss, H. (2012). Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(10), 3862-3867. 14. Karamouz, M., Rasouli, K. & Nazif, S. (2009). Development of a hybrid index for drought prediction: case study. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14(6), 617-627. 15. Keyantash, J.A. & Dracup, J.A. (2004). An aggregate drought index: Assessing drought severity based on fluctuations in the hydrologic cycle and surface water storage. Water Resources Research, 40(9), 1-13. 16. Livada, I. & Assimakopoulos, V.D. (2007). Spatial and temporal analysis of drought in Greece using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 89(3-4), 143-153. 17. Maliva, R. McKee, T.B., Doesken, N.J. & Kleist, J. (1993). The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. In Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Applied Climatology, Boston, MA, USA: American Meteorological Society, 17(22), 179-183. 18. McKee, T.B., Doesken, N.J. & Kleist, J. (1995). Drought monitoring with multiple time scales. In: Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Applied Climatology. American Meteorological Society, 233-236. 19. McRoberts, D.B. & Nielsen-Gammon, J.W. (2012). The use of a high-resolution standardized precipitation index for drought monitoring and assessment. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51(1), 68-83. 20. Michel, S. & Shefa, M. (2010). Drought Analysis in Syrian Al Jazeera Region By using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The Arab Journal of Arid Environments, 3(1) 98-104. 21. Middleton, N.J. & Sternberg, T. (2013). Climate hazards in drylands: a review. Earth-Science Reviews, 126, 48-57. 22. Mishra, A.K. & Singh, V.P. (2010). A review of drought concepts. Journal of Hydrology, 391(1), 202-216. 23. Miyan, M.A. (2015). Droughts in Asian Least Developed Countries: Vulnerability and sustainability. Weather and Climate Extremes, 7(1), 8-23. 24. Mossa, A & Alazba, A.A. (2015). Drought forecasting using stochastic models in a hyper-arid climate. Atmosphere, 6(4), 410-430. 25. Noaman, A., Petersen, G., Kiesel, J. & Wade, S. (2013). Climate change impacts on water resources in Yemen. Journal of Earth Science and Engineering, 3(9), 629. 26. Ntale, H.K. & Gan, T.Y. (2003). Drought indices and their application to East Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 23(11), 1335-1357. 27. Palchaudhuri, M. & Biswas, S. (2013). Analysis of meteorological drought using standardized precipitation index - A case study of Puruliya district, West Bengal, India. International Journal Environment Ecology Geology Min Engineering, 7(3), 119-126. 28. Qassem, Y. & Tarawneh (2013). Quantification of drought in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments, 2(3), 125-133. 29. Rasheed, A.M.M. (2010). Analysis of rainfall drought periods in the North of Iraq using standard precipitation index (SPI). Al-Rafidain Engineering, 18(2): 1-13. 30. Schwabe, K.A. & Connor, J.D. (2012). Drought issues in semi-arid and arid environments. Choices, 27(3), 1-5. 31. Shadeed, S. (2013). Spatio-temporal drought analysis in arid and semi-arid regions: A case study from Palestine. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 38(9), 2303-2313. 32. Shah, R., Bharadiya, N., Manekar, V. (2015). Drought index computation using standardized precipitation index (SPI) method for Surat District, Gujarat. Aquatic Procedia, 4(2015), 1243-1249. 33. Shatanawi, K., Rahbeh, M. & Shatanawi, M. (2013). Characterizing, monitoring and forecasting of drought in Jordan River basin. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 5(2013), 1192-1202. 34. Trenberth, K.E., Dai, A., van der Schrier, G., Jones, P.D., Barichivich, J., Briffa, K.R. & Sheffield, J. (2014). Global warming and changes in drought. Nature Climate Change, 4(1), 17-22. 35. UNDESA/ESCWA. (2013). Drought management planning in water-scarce and in-transitioning-settings countries in West Asia/North Africa, Beirut, Lebanon, 24-25. 36. U.S. Agency for International Development & Ministry of Agriculture of Yemen. (1982). Agricultural sector assessment in Yemen Arab Republic, Sana’a. Retrieved from: 37. Vasiliades, L., Loukas, A., Liberis, N. (2011). A water balance derived drought index for Pinios River Basin, Greece. Water resources management, 25(4), 1087-1101. 38. Wiebelt, M., Breisinger, C., Ecker, O., Al-Riffai, P., Robertson, R. & Thiele, R. (2011). Climate change and floods in Yemen. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 1-60. 39. Wilhite, D. (2000) Drought as a natural hazard: Concepts and definitions. Drought, a Global Assessment, 1(1), 3-18. 40. Wilhite, D.A. & Buchanan-Smith, M. (2005). Drought as hazard: understanding the natural and social context. Drought and Water Crises: Science, Technology, and Management Issues, 3-29. 41. WMO. (2012). Standardized Precipitation Index User Guide. (M. Svoboda, M. Hayes and D. Wood). (WMO-No. 1090), Geneva. 42. World Bank. (2012). Adaptation to a changing climate in the Arab countries: A case for adaptation governance and leadership in building climate resilience. Ed., D. Verner. Washington, DC. Retrieved from: 43. World Bank. (1986). The World Bank annual report 1986. Washington, D.C 20433. Retrieved from: 44. Zhang, Z., Xu, C.Y., Yong, B., Hu, J., Sun, Z. (2012). Understanding the changing characteristics of droughts in Sudan and the corresponding components of the hydrologic cycle. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13(5), 1520- 1535.& Missimer T (2012). Aridity and drought. Arid Lands Water Evaluation and Management, 21-39.

This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.

Back to previous page

Installed and configured by Bahagian Automasi, Perpustakaan Tuanku Bainun, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
If you have enquiries with this repository, kindly contact us at or Whatsapp +60163630263 (Office hours only)