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|Tin constitutes a minor component in commercially produced flat and container glasses. Divalent, tetravalent and tin metal diffused into the surface of the glass during production and strengthened the chemical and physical properties of these glasses. Tetravalent tin has a low solubility in any glass system but divalent tin can formed glasses with a high Sn2+ content in borate, germanate, phosphate, and silicate glass systems. This paper surveyed past studies of the roles of tin in glass systems that contained tin. The different structural roles of Sn2+ and Sn4+ in various glass systems surveyed are discussed in term of the structural difference between divalent and tetravalent of tin compounds in the glass systems, which were reflected in the results of spectroscopic and physical properties studies of the glasses. Divalent tin has been shown to fulfill various structural roles as either modifier or intermediate, depending on the type of glass system and composition.|
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