UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
|Full Text :|
|The papaya plant yields a lot of by-products after its fruit is harvested. Papaya leaves contain a bio-active phytochemical that can serve as a potential source of natural antibacterial agents.Phytochemical screening has discovered that papaya leaf extract contains compounds such as alkaloids, tannins and saponins. Crude alkaloid detection by Dragendorff’s test was positive. Chemical structure characterisation of extracted crude alkaloids revealed by 1 H-NMR spectrum testing was partial, as the spectrum identified only the chemical structure corresponding to aliphatic carbon compounds. Crude alkaloid dissolved in organic solvent dichloromethane showed no antifungal properties towards Candida albicans. Antibacterial properties of crude alkaloid dissolved in dichloromethane were selective on both Gram positive and negative bacteria. Kirby Bauer test results showed negative inhibition for both Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) and Salmonella typhi (Gram negative) but inhibition was positive for antibiotic resistant bacteria, MRSA (Gram positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative) bacteria. Inhibition efficacy increased with the amount of crude alkaloids used. The present study supports the use of papaya by-products as an alternative natural antibiotic for both the community and healthcare personnel.|
1. Agosta, W. C. (1997). Bombardier Beetles and Fever Trees: A Close-up look at chemical warfare and signals in animals and plants. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i. do?id=GALE%7CA19344881&sid=google Scholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=fulltext&issn 2. Baskaran, C., Bai, V. R., Velu, S., & Kumaran, K. (2012). The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2(SUPPL2), S658–S662. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60239-4 3. Bidlack, W. R., Omaye, S. T., Meskin, M. S., & Topham, D. K. W. (2000). Phytochemicals as bioactive agents. Lancester, PA: Technomic Publishing Company Inc. http://doi.org/10.1016/ S0144-8617(01)00296-X 4. Burdick, E. M. (1971). Carpaine: An alkaloid of Carica papaya – Its chemistry and pharmacology. Economic Botany, 25(4), 363–365. http://doi. org/10.1007/BF02985202 5. Chávez-Quintal, P., González-Flores, T., odríguezBuenfil, I., & Gallegos-Tintoré, S. (2011). Antifungal activity in ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. maradol leaves and seeds. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 51(1), 54–60. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-011-0086-5 6. Dawkins, G., Hewitt, H. H., Wint, Y., Obiefuna, P. C. M., & Wint, B. (2003). Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms. West Indian Medical Journal, 52(4), 290–292. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15040064 7. Ekanem, A. P., Obiekezie, A., Kloas, W., & Knopf, K. (2004). Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Parasitology Research, 92(5), 361–366. http:// doi.org/10.1007/s00436-003-1038-8 8. Fhaizal, M., Bukhori, M., Rahman, N. A., Khalid, N., Rashid, A. H., & Diah, M. M. (2014). The supercritical fluid extraction of alkaloids from papaya (Carica papaya L. var. Eksotika) leaves. Borneo Jurnal of Resource Science and Technology, 4(2), 35–49. 9. Giordani, R., Gachon, C., Moulin-Traffort, J., & Regli, P. (1997). A synergistic effect of Carica papaya latex sap and fluconazole on Candida albicans growth. Mycoses, 40(11-12), 429- 437. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0507.1997.tb00180.x/abstract 10. Govindachari, T. (2002). Five decades in the study of natural products. Journal of Chemical Sciences, 114(3), 175-195. Retrieved from http://link. springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02704262 11. Harborne, J. B. (1973). Phenolic compounds. In Phytochemical methods (pp. 33–88). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. http://doi. org/10.1007/978-94-009-5921-7_2 12. Head, W. F., & Lauter, W. M. (1956). Phytochemical examination of the leaves of carica papaya L. Economic Botany, 10(3), 258–260. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02899003 13. Karban, R., & Baldwin, I. T. (1997). Induced responses to herbivory. London: The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from https://books.google. com.my/books?hl=en&lr=&id=S5rPc_VNVM oC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Induced+Respons es+to+Herbivory.+&ots=NlrA0bX7Zj&sig=x 64c-WD1BaIADCKrqPYJMGy2d1s&redir_ esc=y#v=onepage&q=Induced Responses to Herbivory.&f=false 14. Rosenthal, G. A., & Berenbaum, M. R. (2012). Herbivores: Their interactions with secondary plant metabolites: Volume II: Ecological and Evolutionary Processes (Vol. 2). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id =g6BlbAfDveQC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Herbivores,+Their+Interactions+with+Secondary+Plant+Metabolites.&ots=jPjcpRVr3x&sig=uVDdm02ZxYt5o_nzLnr1M-wFJE 15. Tang, C. (1979). New macrocyclic, Δ1-piperideine alkaloids from papaya leaves: dehydrocarpaine I and II. Phytochemistry, 18(4), 651-652. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S003194220084279X 16. Teixeira, Rashid, Z., Nhut, D. T., Sivakumar, D., Gera,A., Teixeira, M., & Tennant, P. F. (2007). Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Biology and Biotechnology. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology, 1(1), 47-73. Retrieved from https://www. researchgate.net/profile/Jaime_Teixeira_Da_ Silva/publication/283224907_Papaya_Carica_ papaya_L_Biology_and_Biotechnology 17. Thomas, G. E., Rodolfo, H. G., Juan, M. D., Georgina, S. F., Luis, C. G., Ingrid, R. B., & Santiago, G. T. (2009). Proteolytic activity in enzymatic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol harvest byproducts. Process Biochemistry, 44(1), 77–82. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2008.09.013 18. Van Bambeke, F., Mingeot-Leclercq, M. P., Struelens, M. J., & Tulkens, P. M. (2008). The bacterial envelope as a target for novel antiMRSA antibiotics. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 29(3), 124–134. http://doi. org/10.1016/j.tips.2007.12.004
|This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.|
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.