UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
|Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris|
|Virtual environments and serious games are a popular media used to fulfil a variety of purposes,
including teaching and learning. The former are computer-generated environments
that present three-dimensional spatial representations. The latter are games which fundamentally
combine virtual environments and gamification, and are used for objectives other
than pleasure and pure entertainment. Most recent works have investigated the effect of
virtual reality technology on learners, sense of presence and so on. However, less investigated
is the relationship between the achievement oflearning objectives and the knowledge delivery
methods utilised (knowledge representations and instruction modalities); or the effect of
technology-enhanced learning on learner's mood after the intervention (and consequently,
the learning) and whether there is any gender difference; or finally, the transfer of knowledge
from virtual to the real world and its long-term retention; which are all elements investigated
in this research.
Two studies of procedural learning were conducted to investigate the elements highlighted
above. The first study investigated on the requirements of a three-dimensional virtual environment
as compared to Google Street View, instruction modalities such as textual, phone
and companion, and short-term memory to learn a new route. The findings show that the
virtual environment is better than Google Street View according to users' experience and
having a companion to the task is a better instruction modality for route learning. The second
study focused on ritual learning that is the case study of the research. The study investigated
on the efficiency of a serious game as compared to PowerPoint note, collaboration with and
without a coach, memory recall between short and long-term period and gender differences.
The findings indicate that the serious game is better than PowerPoint note according to users'
self-reported score and having the coach improves users' learning efficiency and moods. Also,
knowledge of landmarks representations remains longer in users' memory if learnt from the
serious game and factual knowledge remains longer in users' memory if learnt with the coach.
Considering gender differences, women feel that the task is more enjoyable if learning takes
place with the companion, and they recall more landmarks than men, whereas men take less
time to complete the task.
Apart from that, the ritual and navigation knowledge acquired in a virtual environment or
a serious game can be competently used in reality, and it encourages users to remember
more landmarks. The further findings from both studies also reveal that navigation in the
virtual environment and serious game improve users' overall mood and happiness and women
with improved happiness after the virtual training increase their learning performance. Also,
younger players improve learning performance after learning in a virtual environment and
To sum up, virtual environments and serious games can be used as a delivery method for
procedural learning, in particular for ritual learning as they induce enjoyment, create an interesting
experience and stimulate learning performance. Both representations also encourage
landmarks memorization. Also, collaborative learning, in particular with a coach, is always the
best method to convey, share and understand the knowledge. Finally, women enjoy learning
with a companion.|
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