UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
Start | FAQ | About

QR Code Link :

Type :article
Subject :QD Chemistry
Main Author :Mohd Fauzi Elias
Additional Authors :Azi Azeyanty Jamaludin
Adibah Abu Bakar
Haniza Hanim Mohd Zain
Husni Ibrahim
Title :Effect of different chemical formulation on agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) resin weight
Place of Production :Tanjong Malim
Publisher :Fakulti Sains dan Matematik
Year of Publication :2020
Corporate Name :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
PDF Full Text :Click to view PDF file

Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
Agarwood is described as fragrance, smelling wood that is usually derived from the trunk of genus Aquilaria The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate four chemical-based inoculants to induce karas tree to form agarwood resin. Four chemical inoculants were applied into 6 years old karas tree (Aquilaria malaccensis) plantations in Slim River, Perak, Malaysia using dripping techniques. The inoculant used were labelled as A, B, C and D. Commercial inoculant was also used for comparison purposes and labelled as K while a healthy tree, act as control was labelled as N. After four months of inoculation, these samples were cut down and discoloured tissue samples were collected. Solvent extraction method using dichloromethane (DCM) was carried out to obtain the resin crude extract from plant tissues of the samples. All chemical formulation used were succesfully stimulated sample trees to produce resin. Inoculant B produced the highest crude extract recovery (5.49%) compared to inoculant C (4.78%) followed by A (4.32%), D (2.98%), K (1.07%) and N (0.13%). From this study, inoculant B showed the highest yield of resin. Hence, result from current study has the potential to contribute in enhancing new types of inoculant production for the agarwood industries in Malaysia.


[1] Suharti, S., Santosa, E., & Turjama (2011) Feasibility Study of Business in Agarwood Inoculation and Different Stem Diameters and Inoculation Periods. J For Res,8(5),114–129

[2] Barden, A., Anak, N. A., Mulliken, T., & Song, M. (2000) Heart of the Matter: Agarwood use and trade and CITES implementation for Aquilaria malaccensis, 1–52.

[3] Napis, S., Salleh, K. M., Itam, K., & Latiff, A. (2001) Biodiversity Databases for Malaysian Flora and Fauna: An Update. In Proceedings of IWS2001 (Internet Workshop2001) (Vol. 21–23 Febr, p. 6).

[4] Zachary S. Rogers. (2009) A Revision of Malagasy Gnidia (Thymelaeaceae,Thymelaeoideae). Missouri Botanical Garden, 96(2), 324–369.

[5] Lok, E. (2016) Growth And Management of Aquilaria malaccensis For Agarwood.International Journal Of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation, Vol.3 (Jun, 55–60.

[6] Lim, T. K. and Anak. N. A. (2010) Wood for trees: A review of the agarwood (gaharu) trade in Malaysia. TRAFFICSoutheast Asia.

[7] Yahya, A. (2011) Industri GAHARU Malaysia: Cabaran dan Prospek. (H. R. Husin,H.M. Atan, N. L. M. Halip, Hajah N. Hashim, Z. Hamid, S. B. Saleh, F. A. Bakar, Eds.) (2nd ed.). Lembaga Perindustrian Kayu Malaysia.

[8] Jayachandran, K., Sekar, I., Parthiban, K. T., Amirtham, D., & Suresh, K. K. (2014) Analysis of different grades of Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) oil through GC-MS. Indian J Nat Prod Resour, 5(1), 44–47.

[9] Radhuan Hussain. (2014). Harga Gaharu RM130,000 /kg. Utusan Malaysia. Retrieved from

[10] Yusof, S., Nizam, S., Mansor, R., Wei, P., & Mazila, A. N. (2018) Gas Chromatography Analysis of Artificially Inoculated Agarwood Compounds Related to High Quality Agarwood from Malaysia Plantation. Chemistry of Advanced Materials, 3(3), 60–66.

[11] Rasool, S., & Mohamed, R (2016) Understanding Agarwood Formation and Its Challenges. In R. MOHAMED (Ed.), Agarwood: Science Behind the Fragrance (pp.39–56) Singapore: Springer Singapore.

[12] Liu, Y., Chen, H., Yang, Y., Zhang, Z., Wei, J., Meng, H., Chen, H. (2013) Whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique:An efficient novel technique for producing high-qualityagarwood in cultivated Aquilaria sinensis trees. Molecules,18(3), 3086–3106.

[13] Zhang, X. L., Liu, Y. Y., Wei, J. H., Yang, Y., Zhang, Z., Huang, J. Q., Liu, Y. J. (2012) Production of high- Quality agarwood in Aquilaria sinensis trees via whole-tree agarwood-induction technology. Chin. Chem. Lett. (Vol. 23).

[14] Okudera, Y., & Ito, M (2009) Production of agarwood fragrant constituents in Aquilaria calli and cell suspension cultures. Plant Biotechnology, 26(3), 307–315.

[15] Chen, H., Yang, Y., Xue, J., Wei, J., Zhang, Z., & Chen, H. (2011) Comparison of Compositions and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils from Chemically Stimulated Agarwood, Wild Agarwood and Healthy Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg Trees. Molecules, 16(6), 4884.

[16] Chua, L. S. L. (2008) Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) in Malaysia. NDF Workshop Case Studies(Vol. 3).

[18] Zhang, Z., Wei, J., Han, X., Liang, L., Yang, Y., Meng, H., Gao, Z. (2014) The sesquiterpene biosynthesis and vessel-occlusion formation in stems of Aquilaria sinensis (lour.) trees induced by wounding treatments without variation of microbial communities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15(12), 23589 23603.

[19] Lee, N Y, MAC Yunus, Z Idham, MSH Ruslan, A. A. and N. I. (2017). Agarwood excraction.pdf. In Second international Conference on Chemical Engineering (ICCE) UNPAR (p. 162).

[20] Peng, C. S., Osman, M. F., Bahari, N., Nuri, E. A., Zakaria, R., & Rahim, K. A. (2015). Agarwood inducement tech- chong.pdf. J Agrobiotech, 6.

[21] Van Thanh, L., & Van Do, T. (2015). Impacts of biological, chemical and mechanical treatments on sesquiterpene content in stems of planted Aquilaria crassna tree. Agroforestry Systems, 89, 973–981.

[22] Wang, J., Sun, B., Cao, Y., Tian, Y., & Li, X. (2008). Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat bran. Food Chemistry.

This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.

Back to previous page

Installed and configured by Bahagian Automasi, Perpustakaan Tuanku Bainun, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
If you have enquiries with this repository, kindly contact us at or Whatsapp +60163630263 (Office hours only)