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Type :thesis
Subject :QD Chemistry
Main Author :Iman Nur Fathihah Abdul Aziz
Title :Synthesis and characterization of zinc layered hydroxide intercalated with 4-aminobenzoic acid as sunscreen formulation
Place of Production :Tanjong Malim
Publisher :Fakulti Sains dan Matematik
Year of Publication :2019
Notes :with cd
Corporate Name :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
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Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
The  aims  of  this  study  were  to  synthesis  and  characterize  zinc  layered  hydroxide intercalated with 4-aminobenzoic acid (ZAB) as a sunscreen formulation. ZAB was successfully   synthesized  from  4-aminobenzoic  acid  (4-AB)  and  zinc  oxide  (ZnO) precursor using direct  method. The intercalation of compound was confirmed by using powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD)  pattern with a basal spacing of 23.2 Å at lower 2θ angle. The result was supported by fourier  transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum where the signal of carboxyl and amine functional groups were  observed at 1518 and 1174 cm?¹,  respectively.  Thermogravimetric  analysis  and  deferential   thermal  gravimetric (TGA/DTG)  showed  that  ZAB  material  was  more  stable  compared  to  pure   4-AB. Carbon  composition  in  the  material  acquired  from  carbon,  hydrogen,  nitrogen  and  sulphur (CHNS) analysis was 19.2%. This composition is close to theoretical value of 21% of carbon  presence in ZAB. Surface area of ZAB obtained from breuneur, emmet and teller (BET) analysis was  53.80 m²/g much higher compared to 3.38 m²/g of ZnO material which was caused by the modification  of ZnO pore texture transformed into layered   intercalation   compound.   Field   emission    scanning   electron   microscopy (FESEM) morphology of ZAB clearly showed that the material was  flake-like shape with different sizes after  intercalation process.  Kinetics release study of   anion from interlayer of ZAB fitted to pseudo-second order with 0.945 of correlation coefficient  (r²) exhibited the highest accumulated released of 4-AB anion was in pH 5.5 phosphate buffer  solution. Cytotoxicity study demonstrated human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells were exposed to ZAB  concentration at below 25.0 μg/mL experienced less than 50% of cell viability reduction, indicating  no cytotoxicity effect to HDF cells. In conclusion, ZAB material has been successfully synthesized  and characterized. The implication of this  study  is  to  offer  non-toxic  formulated  sunscreen   that  potential  to  improve pharmaceutical technology and medical care.  


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