UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
Start | FAQ | About

QR Code Link :

Type :article
Subject :RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Main Author :Maizatul Hayati Mohammad Yatim
Additional Authors :Mohd Yazid Kassim
Nor Ba’yah Abdul Kadir
Nor Hazla Mohamed Hafsah
Hamidah Alias
Puteri Nor Ellyza Nohuddin
Nadhirah Rasid
Hanif Baharin
Irna Hamil Hamzah
A. Imran Nordin
Title :Game requirements gathering among hospitalised paediatric cancer patients: a thematic analysis
Place of Production :Tanjong Malim
Publisher :Fakulti Seni, Komputeran dan Industri Kreatif
Year of Publication :2019
Corporate Name :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
PDF Guest :Click to view PDF file

Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
This paper presents a study that analyzes hospitalized pediatric cancer patients' routines and activities to inform the game design to be used for the development of a digital game to empower them. This study focuses on discovering patients' experiences while being hospitalized. The patients' activities throughout their hospital stay are recorded through non-participatory observations strategy and their experiences inward are gathered through interview sessions with their parents or guardians who have been nursing them during their entire stay in the hospital. The findings suggest that the patients' experiences are divided into two main themes, namely positive and negative affect. These two themes are depending on the patients' treatment phases: before, during and after receiving medical treatments. These findings are crucial to being translated into design principles to inform game design. It is important to ensure that the digital game for pediatric cancer patients is designed properly to ensure its suitability to be played by them. The ability to understand the actual routines and experiences in the hospital would help designers and developers of digital games to develop a digital intervention to empower pediatric cancer patients while being hospitalized


[1] American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. 2016.

[2] A. M. Azizah, I. T. Nor Saleha, A. Noor Hashimah, Z. A. Asmah, and W. Mastulu, “Malaysian National

Cancer Registry Report 2007-2011, Malaysia Cancer Statistics, Data and Figure,” Natl. Cancer Institue, vol.

16, p. 203, 2016.

[3] E. S. Taylor, “Health Psychology,” USA McGraw-Hill Int., 2015.

[4] N. C. Institute, “National Cancer Institute,” 2017.

[5] C. R. UK, “Type of Cancer,” 2017. [Online]. Available:

[6] N. C. Institute, “Types of Cancer Treatment,” 2017. [Online]. Available:

[7] L. Melissa Deifer Hicks, Ms, Ccls, Lpc, Ncc and Rebecca Lavender, Msw, “Psychosocial Practice Trends in Pediatric Oncology,” J. Pediatr. Oncol. Nurs., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 143–153, 2001.

[8] L. S. T. Louise Penkman and W. Pelletier, “A psychosocial program for pediatric oncology patients: A pilot study of the beaded journey,” J. Psychosoc. Oncol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 103–115, 2006.

[9] J. S. Dowling, M. Hockenberry, and R. L. Gregory, “Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection,” J. Pediatr. Oncol. Nurs., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 271–292, 2003.

[10] R. K. Enska and r and L. von Essen, “Physical problems and psychosocial function in children with cancer.,” Paediatr. Nurs., vol. 20, no. 3, p. 37, 2008.

[11] C. for C. Cancer, “CureSearch for Children’s Cancer.”

[12] M. DeJong and E. Fombonne, “Depression in paediatric cancer: An overview,” Psychooncology., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 553–566, 2006.

[13] E. D. V Matziou, P Perdikaris, P Galanis and K. Tzoumakas, “Evaluating depression in a sample of children and adolescents with cancer in Greece,” Int. Nurs. Rev., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 314–319, 2008.

[14] I. Hamzah, A. I. Nordin, N. Rasid, and H. Alias, “Understanding Hospitalized Pediatric Cancer Patients’ Activities for Digital Games Design Requirements,” no. Ivi, pp. 552–558, 2017.

[15] C. S. B. Meveshni Govender, Randy C Bowen, Massiell L German, Grzegorz Bulaj, “Clinical and neurobiological perspectives of empowering pediatric cancer patients using videogames,” Games Health J., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 362–374, 2015.

[16] B. C. Craig Caldwell, Carol Bruggers, Roger Altizer, Grzegorz Bulaj, Troy D’Ambrosio, Robert Kessler, “The intersection of video games and patient empowerment: case study of a real-world application,” Proc. 9th Australas. Conf. Interact. Entertain. Matters Life Death, vol. 12, 2013.

[17] J. C. H. William H Redd, Paul B Jacobsen, Maria Die-Trill, Helen Dermatis, Maureen McEvoy, “Cognitive/attentional distraction in the control of conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy,” J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., vol. 55, no. 3, p. 391, 1987.

[18] I. Hamzah, A. I. Nordin, H. Alias, and H. Baharin, “Game Design Requirements Through Ethnography Amongst Pediatric Cancer Patients,” To Appear, 2017.

[19] T. Mehmood, S. Sultan, and C. Author, “Translation and Adaptation of Revised Children ’ s Anxiety and Depression Scale,” vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 95–106, 2014.

[20], “Definition of chemotherapy,” 2018. [Online]. Available:

[21], “Cancer.Net,” American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), 2016. [Online]. Available:

[22] I. Granic, A. Lobel, and R. C. M. E. Engels, “The benefits of playing video games.,” Am. Psychol., vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 66–78, 2014.

[23] D. Thompson, “Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.,” J. Diabetes Sci. Technol., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 807–11, 2012.

[24] P. Jahn, N. Lakowa, and O. Stoll, “InterACTIV: An Exploratory Study of the Use of a Game Console to Promote Physical Activation of Hospitalized Adult...,” no. July 2017, 2012.

[25] C. S. Bruggers et al., “Patient-Empowerment Interactive Technologies,” vol. 4, no. 152, pp. 2–5, 2012.

[26] L. S. Liu, K. Inkpen, and W. Pratt, ““ I ’ m Not Like My Friends ”: Understanding How Children with a Chronic Illness Use Technology to Maintain Normalcy,” pp. 1527–1539, 2015.

[27] I. Coyne, “Children’s experiences of hospitalization,” J. Child Heal. Care, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 326–336, 2006.

[28] E. L. Warner, A. C. Kirchhoff, G. E. Nam, and M. Fluchel, “Financial Burden of Pediatric Cancer for Patients and Their Families,” J. Oncol. Pract., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2015.

[29] A. Dionigi, D. Sangiorgi, and R. Flangini, “Clown intervention to reduce preoperative anxiety in children and parents: A randomized controlled trial,” J. Health Psychol., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 369–380, 2014.

[30] V. S. Mittal et al., “Family-Centered Rounds on Pediatric Wards: A PRIS Network Survey of US and Canadian Hospitalists,” Pediatrics, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2010.

[31] J. Vasterling, R. A. Jenkins, D. M. Tope, and T. G. Burish, “Cognitive distraction and relaxation training for the control of side effects due to cancer chemotherapy,” J Behav Med, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 65–80, 1993.

[32] L. Gershon, J., Zimand, E., Lemos, R., Rothbaum, B. O., & Hodges, “Use of virtual reality as a distractor for painful procedures in a patient with pediatric cancer: a case study,” CyberPsychology Behav., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 657–661, 2003.

[33] M. Griffiths, “Editorial: Can videogames be good for your health?,” J. Health Psychol., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 339–344, 2004.

[34] P. M. Kato, “Video Games in Health Care?: Closing the Gap,” vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 113–121, 2010.

[35] A. P. H. Weightman, N. Preston, R. Holt, M. Allsop, M. Levesley, and B. Bhakta, “Engaging children in healthcare technology design: Developing rehabilitation technology for children with cerebral palsy,” J. Eng. Des., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 579–600, 2010.


This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.

Back to previous page

Installed and configured by Bahagian Automasi, Perpustakaan Tuanku Bainun, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
If you have enquiries with this repository, kindly contact us at or Whatsapp +60163630263 (Office hours only)