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Type :thesis
Subject :QH301 Biology
Main Author :Majhool, Ali Arkan
Title :Actinomycetes from bris soil and their secondary metabolities
Place of Production :Tanjong Malim
Publisher :Fakulti Sains dan Matematik
Year of Publication :2020
Corporate Name :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
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Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
A total of 155 actinomycete strains were isolated from Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS)  soils. Samples were collected at various depths from the earth surface and  subsurface  in  Setiu   district,  Terengganu.  The  isolates  were  assessed  for  their antibacterial activity against a  panel of microorganisms (Escherichia coli DSM30083T, Bacillus   subtilis   DSM10T,   Pseudomonas    fluorescens   DSM   50090T,   Klebsiella pneumoniae   DSM30104T,   Micrococcus   luteus    DSM20030T,   and   Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Results indicated that 65% of all isolates were  active against, at least, one of the test organisms. Thirty-three of the isolates were selected and  characterized by conventional methods and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most of the  isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces sp. (15 isolates) and 8 other rare genera namely  Microtetrapora sp. (5 isolates), Streptacidiphilus sp. (3 isolates), Actinoplanes sp. (3 isolates),  Microbispora sp. (2 isolates), Rothia sp. (1 isolate), Micromonospora sp. (2 isolates),   Amycolatopsis  sp. (1 isolate),  and  Sacharopolyspora sp.  (1 isolate). Isolates that showed  antibacterial activities were subjected to metabolite extraction and further analysis. Extracts  exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activities that varied with isolates and concentration of  each extract. Thirty-nine compounds were detected both  from  Streptomyces  sp.  AA13  and   Amycolatopsis  sp.  AA12,  and  thirty-eight compounds   from   Micromonospora   sp.   AA141,    using   GC-MS.   Whole   genome Sequence analysis conducted on isolate Amycolatopsis sp AA12  produced a total of 5,304,429  paired-end  reads  and  51  potential  secondary  metabolites   coding  gene clusters. Based on the analysis of metabolites from Amycolatopsis sp. (AA12) using NMR   spectroscopy,  the  polyphenolic  groups  were  isolated  that  including  quercetin (C15H10O7),    rutoside   (C27H30O16),   isotrifoliin   (C21H20O12),   and   3,   5,   6,7,3,4 heptahydroxy  flavone. Most of the polyphenolic compounds exist as sugar conjugates. The biosynthesis of  dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3, 5 -epimerase in Amycolatopsis sp. (AA12) is influenced by at least ten  genes. The DTDP-sugars, derived from glucose 1- phosphate, are involved in the biosynthesis of polyphenolic compounds.  


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