UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
Start | FAQ | About

QR Code Link :

Type :thesis
Subject :PE English
Main Author :Amreet Kaur Jageer Singh
Title :The use of peer instruction in a flipped learning environment in teaching ESL students argumentative essay writing
Place of Production :Tanjong Malim
Publisher :Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi
Year of Publication :2021
Notes :Pedagogi
Corporate Name :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
PDF Guest :Click to view PDF file
PDF Full Text :Login required to access this item.

Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
The study investigates the effects of peer instruction and examines students’ participation in a flipped learning environment on ESL students’ argumentative essay writing performance and critical thinking. A mixed-method design was used. A total of 120 upper-intermediate English proficiency students from a university in Malaysia were chosen as participants for seven weeks. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Descriptive interpretations and thematic analysis were used to analyse the qualitative data. The results indicated a significant difference in mean scores for writing performance in the posttest between the experimental group (group work in a flipped learning environment) (M = 63.95, sd = 13.04) and the control group (M = 56.65, sd = 11.15). There is also a significant difference in mean scores for critical thinking in the posttest between the experimental group (pair work in a flipped learning environment) and the control group (mean difference = 3.800, p < .05) as well as the experimental group (group work in a flipped learning environment) and the control group (mean difference = 5.525, p < .05). The qualitative analysis of the student assessment form (pair work and group work), lesson study logs, EdPuzzle video quizzes, and samples of student worksheets revealed ESL students’ participation by engaging themselves in interactions during in-class writing activities, contributing knowledge to others, getting prepared with the essential concepts and content before class, focusing on the task and assessing the quality of argumentative writing. Overall, the use of peer instruction in a flipped learning environment enhances students’ writing performance, critical thinking and participation in argumentative essay writing. The study implicates that the use of peer instruction in a flipped learning environment can be an alternative pedagogical approach to enhance the teaching and learning of argumentative essay writing.


Abbas Ali Rezaee & Zeinab Azizi. (2012). The role of zone of proximal development

in the students’ learning of English adverbs. Journal of Language Teaching and

Research, 3(1), 51-57.


Abbas, P. G., Lai, M. L., & Hairul Nizam Ismail. (2013). Teachers’ use of technology

and constructivism. I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 4, 49-63.


Abdollahzadeh, E., Amini Farsani, M., & Beikmohammadi, M. (2017).

Argumentative writing behavior of graduate EFL learners. Argumentation,

31, 641–661.


Abdul Rahman, S. F., Yunus. M. M., & Hashim, H. (2019). Flipped learning in

Malaysia. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 5(6),



Abeysekera, L. & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped

classroom: Definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education

Research & Development, 34(1), 1-14.


Adam, S., & Nel, D. (2009). Blended and online learning: Student perceptions and

performance. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 6, 140-155.


Afef Ahmed Gasmi. (2016). An exploratory study of students’ lived experiences in a

blended-flipped writing class. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), Special

Issue on CALL, No. 3 July 2016, 211-226.


Afef Ahmed Gasmi & Thomas, M. (2016). Academic writing in the flipped EFL

classroom: A case study on student engagement in Oman. In J. P. Loucky & J.

L. Ware, Flipped Instruction Methods and Digital Technologies in the

Language Learning Classroom (pp. 232-251). IGI Global, Hershey, PA, USA.


Afendi Hamat & Haslina, A. H. (2019). Use of social media for informal language

learning by Malaysian university students. 3L The Southeast Asian Journal of

English Language Studies, 25(4), 68-83.


Afendi Hamat, Mohamed Amin, E., & Haslinda, A.H. (2012). The use of social

networking sites among Malaysian university students. International

Education Studies, 5(3), 56-66.


Agbatogun, A. O. (2014). Developing learners’ second language communicative

competence through active learning: Clickers or communicative approach?

Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 257-269.


Ahmed, A. A. R., & Khaled Abdel-Jaleel, D. (2016). The influence of English

teaching forums on improving eleventh graders’ writing skills in Habla

secondary school for girls. International Journal of English Language

Teaching, 4(9), 69-85.


Akay, G. (2011). The effect of peer instruction method on the eighth-grade students’

mathematics achievement in transformation geometry and attitudes towards

mathematics (Master’s thesis). Turkey: Middle East Technical University.


Akcan, S. (2011). Analysis of teacher candidates’ learning experiences in an English

teaching methods course. Education and Science, 36(162), 247-260.


Al-Harbi, S. S., & Alshumaimeri, Y.A. (2016). The flipped classroom impact in

grammar class on EFL Saudi secondary school students’ performances and

attitudes. English Language Teaching, 9(10), 60–80.


Al-Hebaishi, S. M. (2017). The effect of peer instruction method on preservice

teachers’ conceptual comprehension of methodology course. Journal of

Education and Learning, 6(3), 70-82.


Ali Odeh, H. A., & Mohamed Ayed A.. (2017). Development of critical thinking

skills through writing tasks: Challenges facing maritime English students at

Aqaba College, AlBalqa Applied University, Jordon. International Journal of

Higher Education, 6(3), 82-90.


Almodaires, A. A., Alayyar, G. M., Almsaud, T. O., & Almutairi, F. M. (2019). The

effectiveness of flipped learning: A quasi-experimental study of the perceptions

of Kuwaiti pre-service teachers. International Education Studies, 12(1), 10-23.


Al-Samarraie, H., Shamsuddin, A., & Alzahrani, A. I. (2020). A flipped classroom

model in higher education: a review of the evidence across

disciplines. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68, 1017–



Alsowat, H. (2016). An EFL flipped classroom teaching model: Effects on English

language higher-order thinking skills, student engagement and satisfaction.

Journal of Education and Practice, 7(9), 108-121.


Álvarez, A. (2001). Textose expositivo-explicativos y argumentativos. Barcelona:



Amelia, L. C. H., & Mohamad Jafre, Z. A. (2018). Young ESL learners’ perception

on the effects of using digital storytelling application in English language

learning. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 26(T),



Anderson, J. R. (2012). Cognitive psychology and its enlightenment (7th ed.). Beijing:

People’s Posts and Telecommunications Press.


Anderson, L., & Krathwohl, D. A. (2001). Taxonomy for learning, teaching and

assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New

York: Longman.


Anderson, R. C., Reynolds, R. E., Schallert, D. L., & Goetz, E. T. (1977).

Frameworks for comprehending discourse. American Educational Research

Journal, 14(4), 367-381.


Arik, B. T., & Arik, E. (2017). “Second language writing” publications in web of

science: A bibliometric analysis. Publications, 5(4), 1-12.


Arina Evseeva, & Anton Solozhenko. (2015). Use of flipped classroom technology in

language learning. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 205–209.


Ariyanti, A., & Fitriana, R. (2017). EFL students’ difficulties and needs in essay

writing. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research

(ASSEHR), 158, 111-121.


Ashton-Hay, S. (2009). Completing the jigsaw: ESL and EFL undergraduate views on

interactive peer-based learning. TESOL in Context: Pedagogies of Connection

(2009 Special Edition), S2, 1-18.


Audley, S. (2018). Partners as scaffolds: Teaching in the zone of proximal

development. Teaching and Learning Together in Higher Education, 24(1),



Axelson, R. D., & Flick, A. (2011). Defining student engagement. Change: The

Magazine of Higher Learning, 43(1), 38-43.


Ayçiçek, B., & Yelken, T. Y. (2018), The effect of flipped classroom model on

students’ classroom engagement in teaching English. International Journal of

Instruction, 11(2), 385-398.


Azam, F. K. K., Fadhil, F., & Yunus, M. M. (2019). Enhancing ESL learners’ writing

skills via ProvWrit. International Journal of Academic Research in Business

and Social Sciences, 9(1), 660-669.


Badia, A., Barbera, E., Guasch, T. & Espasa, A. (2011). Technology educational

affordance: Bridging the gap between patterns of interaction and technology

usage. Digital Education Review, 19, 20-35.


Baker, J. W. (2000). The “classroom flip”: Using web course management tools to

become the guide on the side. In J. A. Chambers (Ed.), Selected papers from the

11th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning (pp. 9-17).

Jacksonville, FL: Florida Community College at Jacksonville.


Barahal, S. (2008). Thinking about thinking: Preservice teachers strengthen their

thinking artfully. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(4). 298–302.


Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language

teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16(4), 28-37.


Basioudis, I. G., Lange, P. D., Suwardy, T., & Wells, P. (2012). Accounting students’

perceptions of a learning management system: An international comparison.

Accounting Research Journal, 25(2), 72-86.


Bath, D., & Bourke, J. (2010). Getting started with blended learning. Australia:

Griffith Institute for Higher Education.


Bauer-Ramazani, C., Graney, J. M., Marshall, H. W., & Sabieh, C. (2016). Flipped

learning in TESOL: Definitions, approaches, and implementation. TESOL

Journal, 7(2), 429-437.


Beaumont, J. (2010). A sequence of critical thinking tasks. TESOL Journal, 1(4),



Beesley, A., & Apthorp, H. (2010). Classroom instruction that works (2nd ed.).

Denver, CO: McREL International.


Bennett, B. (2013). Mastery. In J. Bretzman (Ed.), Flipping 2.0: Practical strategies

for flipping your class (pp. 7-22). New Berlin, WI: The Bretzman Group.


Bennett, B. E., Spencer, D., Bergmann, J., Cockrum, T., Musallam, R., Sams, A.,

Fisch, K. & Overmyer, J. (2011). The flipped class manifest: The daily riff.

Retrieved from:



Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every

class every day. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in



Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2014). Flipped learning: Gateway to student engagement.

Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.

Berk, L. E. (1997). Child development (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn &



Berrett, D. (2012). How flipping the classroom can improve the traditional lecture.

The Chronicle of Higher Education, 58(25), 16–18.


Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V. (2014). Research in education (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn and



Betihavas, V., Bridgman, H., Kornhaber, R., & Cross, M. (2015). The evidence for

‘flipping out’: A systematic review of the flipped classroom in nursing

education. Nurse Education Today, 6, 15–21.


Biggs, J. (2014). Constructive alignment in university teaching. HERDSA Review of

Higher Education, 1(5), 5-22.


Bipichandra, J. S., Shah, P. M., Puteh, S. N., Din, R., Rahamat, R., & Aziz, J. A.

(2014). User needs analysis in learning argumentative writing via mobile

platform. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118 (2014), 198-205.


Birgili, B., Seggie, F. N., & Oğuz, E. (2021). The trends and outcomes of flipped

learning research between 2012 and 2018: A descriptive content analysis.

Journal of Computers in Education, 8(2), 1-30.


Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the

research. Paper presented at Proceedings of 120th ASEE Annual Conference &

Exposition, Atlanta, GA.


Biswas, B., Roy, S. K., & Roy, F. (2020). Students’ perception of mobile learning

during COVID-19 in Bangladesh: University student perspective. Aquademia,

4(2), 1-9.


Black, T. R. (1999). Doing quantitative research in the social sciences: An integrated

approach to research design, measurement and statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications Ltd.


Blake, B., & Pope, T. (2008). Development psychology: Incorporating Piaget's and

Vygotsky's theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives

in Education, 1(1), 59-67.


Blömer L., Droit A., & Vogelsang K. (2020). May the change be with you: The

need for new roles to support flipped classroom development. In: Hattingh

M., Matthee M., Smuts H., Pappas I., Dwivedi Y., Mäntymäki M. (eds)

Responsible Design, Implementation and Use of Information and

Communication Technology. I3E 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science,

vol 12066. Springer, Cham.


Bonwell, C., & Eison, J. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the

classroom (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1). Washington, DC:

George Washington University.


Bonyadi, A. (2014). The effect of topic selection on EFL students’ writing

performance. SAGE Open, 4(3), 1-9.


Botley, S. P. (2014). Argument structure in learner writing: A corpus-based analysis

using argumentative mapping. Kajian Malaysia, 32(1), 45-77.


Boud, D. (2001). Making the move to peer learning. In Boud, D., Cohen, R., &

Sampson, J. (Eds). (2001). Peer Learning in Higher Education: Learning from

and with each other. London: Kogan Page (now Routledge), 1-20.


Bowon Kim. (2015). MOOCs and educational challenges around Asia and Europe

(Ed.). Korea: KNOW Press.


Bradford-Watts, K. (2011). Students teaching students? Peer teaching in the EFL

classroom in Japan. The Language Teacher, 35(5), 31-35.


Brame, C., (2013). Flipping the classroom. Vanderblit University Center for

Teaching. Retrieved January 1, 2018 from



Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for

beginners. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Ltd.


Brewer, R. & Movahedazarhouligh, S. (2018). Successful stories and conflicts: A

literature review on the effectiveness of flipped learning in higher

education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 34(4), 409-416.


Brookhart, S. M. (2010). How to assess higher-order thinking skills in your

classroom. Virginia USA. ASCD Alexandria.


Brophy, J. (2002). Social constructivist teaching: Affordances and constraints.

Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.


Bruff, D. (2009). Teaching with classroom response systems: Creating active

learning environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Bruner, J. S. (1978). The role of dialogue in language acquisition. In A. Sinclair, R., J.

Jarvelle, & W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.). The Child’s Concept of Language. New

York: Springer-Verlag.


Bruning, R., Schraw, G., & Ronning, R. (1999). Cognitive psychology and

instruction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.


Buitrago, C. R., & Diaz, J. (2018). Flipping tech-enhanced, content-based EAP

courses with online content. In Mehring, J., & Leis, A. (Eds.), Innovations in

Flipping the Language Classroom: Theories and Practices (pp. 69-91). New

York, NY: Springer.


Burke, M., & Sass, T. (2013). Classroom peer effects and student achievement.

Journal of Labor Economics, 31(1), 51-82.


Butchart, S., Handfield, T., & Restall, G. (2009). Using peer instruction to teach

philosophy, logic and critical thinking. Teaching Philosophy, 32(1), 1-40.


Çağanağa, C. K., & Kaymakamoğlu, S. (2015). Developing with residual practice in

EFL classrooms. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology,

Special Issues, 150-154.


Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (2015). Experimental and quasi-experimental

designs for research. United Kingdom: Ravenio Books.


Campbell, Y. C., & Filimon, C. (2017). Supporting the argumentative writing of

students in linguistically diverse classrooms: An action research study.

Research in Middle Level Education, 41(1), 1-10.


Caracelli, V. J., & Greene, J. C. (1997). Crafting mixed-method evaluation designs. In

J. C. Greene & V. J. Caracelli (Eds.). Advances in mixed-method evaluation:

The challenges and benefits of integrating diverse paradigms (pp. 19-32). San

Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2014). Vocabulary and language teaching. London:



Cavus, N., & Muhammed Sharif, A. (2014). Learning management systems use in

science education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 143(2014),



Challob, A. I., (2021). The effect of flipped learning on EFL students’ writing

performance, autonomy, and motivation. Education and Information

Technologies, 26(3), 1-27.


Chan, W. F. (2007). The effects of time constraints and proficiency on ESL essay

writing performance (Doctoral thesis). School of Humanities of University

Science Malaysia.


Chen Hsieh, J. S., Wu, W. C. V., & Marek, M. W. (2017). Using the flipped

classroom to enhance EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning,

30(1-2), 1-21.


Cheng, G., & Chau, J. (2013). Exploring the relationship between students’ selfregulated

learning ability and their ePortfolio achievement. Internet and

Higher Education, 17, 9-15.


Cheng, Y. C., & Mok, M. M. C. (2008). What effective classroom? Towards a

paradigm shift. School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An

International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 19(4), 365-385.


Chiew, D. Y., Elizabeth M, A., Berhannudin Mohd Salleh, Robijah Kamarulzaman,

Zulida Abd Kadir. (2016). Creating thinking classrooms: Perceptions and

teaching practices of ESP practitioners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral

Sciences, 232, 631–639. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.087


Choe, E., & Seong, M. H. (2016). A case study of the flipped classroom in a Korean

university general English course. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of

Applied Linguistics, 20(2), 71-93.


Choo, L. L., & Stella, P. H. S. (2015). The value of class participation as an

assessment tool in the English language classroom. ELIS Classroom Inquiry.

Proceedings of the ELIS Conference, Suntec Singapore Convention &

Exhibition Centre, Singapore, 15 September 2015.


Chua, Y. P. (2013). Mastering research statistics. Selangor: McGraw-Hill Education

(Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.


Chuah, K. M., & Hong, K. S. (2014). Morpheus UNIMAS: Strengthening student

engagement in blended learning environments. A book chapter in Blended &

Flipped Learning: Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs. Malaysia: Universiti

Kebangsaan Malaysia.


Cleveland-Innes, M., & Wilton, D. (2018). Guide to blended learning. British

Columbia, Canada: Commonwealth of Learning.


Cohen, A. D. (2014). Strategies in learning and using a second language. New York:



Cohen J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York,

NY: Routledge Academic.


Cole, M. T., Shelley, D. J., & Swartz, L. B. (2014). Online instruction, e-learning and

student satisfaction: A three-year study. The International Review of Research

in Open and Distance Learning. 15(6), 111-131.


Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (2009). Rethinking education in the age of technology:

The digital revolution and the schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Commonwealth Tertiary Education Facility. (2020). Flexible learning pathways in

Malaysian higher education: Balancing human resources development and

equity policies. Malaysia: Commonwealth Tertiary Education Facility.


Conole, G. (2013). Designing for learning in an open world. New York, NY:



Cook, G. (1994). Discourse and literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Correa, M. (2015). Flipping the foreign language classroom and critical pedagogies:

A (new) old trend. Higher Education for the Future, 2(2), 114-125.


Cottrell, S. (2017). Critical thinking skills: Effective analysis, argument and

reflection. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Cousins, S., & Cunnah, W. (2017). Investigating emotional, sensory and social

learning in early years practice. New York, NY: Routledge.


Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods

approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.


Creswell, J. W., & Clark, P. V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed

methods research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.


Cronk, B. C. (2018). How to use SPSS: A step-by-step guide to analysis and

interpretation. New York: Routledge.


Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer instruction; Ten years of experience.

American Association of Physics Teachers, 69(9), 970-975.


Crouch, C., Watkins, J., Fagen, A. P., & Mazur, E. (2007). Peer instruction: Engaging

students one-on-one, all at once. Research-Based Reform of University Physics,

1(1), 40-95.


Cutts, Q., Esper, S., & Simon, B. (2012). Exploratory home-works: An active learning

tool for textbook reading. In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International

Conference on International Conference on International Computing

Education Research (pp. 105-110). New York: ACM.


Czekanki, K. E., & Wolf, Z. R. (2013). Encouraging and evaluating class

participation. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 10(1),



David, D., Miclea, M., & Opre, A. (2004). The information-processing approach to

the human mind: Basics and beyond. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60(4),



Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and

instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems

spreadsheet course. Education Technology Research and Development, 61,



Díaz, Á. (2002). La argumentación escrita. Colombia: Caminos. Editorial

Universidad de Antioquia.


Di Vesta, F. J. (1987). The cognitive movement and education. In J. A. Golver & R.

R. Ronning (Eds.), Historical foundations of educational psychology (pp. 37-

63). New York: Plenum Press.


Dodge, B. (1995). WebQuests: A technique for internet-based learning. Distance

Educator, 1(2), 10-13.


Doman, E., & Webb, M. (2014). The flipped and non-flipped EFL classroom: Initial

reactions from Chinese university students, ThaiTESOL Journal, 27(1), 13-43.


Doman, E., & Webb, M. (2017). The flipped experience for Chinese university

students studying English as a foreign language. TESOL Journal, 8, 102–141.


Dumont, A. (2013). Peer instruction to learn English. International Conference “ICT

for Language Learning”, Florence, 14-15 November 2013. Italy: Pixel.


Dyah Sunggingwati. (2018). Cooperative learning in peer teaching: A case study in an

EFL context. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(1), 149-157.


Egbert, J., Herman, D. & Chang, A. (2014). To flip or not to flip? That’s not the

question: Exploring flipped instruction in technology supported language

learning environments. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language

Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT), 4(2), 1-10.


Egbert, J., Herman, D., & Lee, H. (2015). Flipped instruction in English language

teacher education: A design-based study in a complex, open-ended learning

environment. TESL-EJ, 19(2), 1–23.


Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2004). Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms

(6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


Ekmekci, E. (2017). The flipped writing classroom in Turkish EFL context: A

comparative study on a new model. Turkish Online Journal of Distance

Education, 18(2), 151–167.


Elza Venter. (2017). Bridging the communication gap between Generation Y and the

Baby Boomer generation. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth,

22(4), 497-507.


Embi, M. A. (2011). E-Learning in Malaysian institutions of higher learning: Status,

trends and challenges. Keynote Address presented at the International Lifelong

Learning Conference (ICLLL 2011), Seri Pacific Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, 14-15

November 2015.


Embi, M. A., Supyan Hussin & Ebrahim Panah. (2014). Flipped learning readiness

among graduate and postgraduate students in UKM. In Mohamed Amin Embi

(Ed.), Blended & flipped learning: Case studies in Malaysian HEIs (pp. 210-

2923). Selangor, Malaysia: Centre for Teaching & Learning Technologies,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Department of Higher Education, Ministry of

Education Malaysia.


Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction

on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends: Linking

Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 57(6), 14-27.


Engin, M. (2014). Extending the flipped classroom model: developing second

language writing skills through student-created digital videos. Journal of the

Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 14(5), 12–26.


Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2013), Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism:

Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective.

Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6, 50–72.


Estes, M. D., Ingram, R., & Liu, J. C. (2014). A review of flipped classroom research,

practice, and technologies. International HETL Review, Volume 4, Article 7,



Fagen, A., Crouch, C., & Mazur, E. (2002). Peer instruction: Results from a range of

classrooms. The Physics Teacher, 40, 206-209.


Fahim, M., & Mizraii, M. (2014). Improving EFL argumentative writing: A dialogic

critical thinking approach. International Journal of Research Studies in

Language Learning, 3(1), 3-20.


Faulkner, T., & Green, J. (2015). The peer instruction flipped learning model. In A.

Scheg (Ed.), Implementation and critical assessment of the flipped classroom

experience (pp.196-217). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.


Fauziah Sulaiman. (2013). Learning outcomes from online learning in Malaysia: A

case study on students’ perception of satisfaction, perception of interaction

and perceptions of individual features of online learning. International Journal

of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(10), 239-246.


Ferretti, R. P., Andrews-Weckerly, S., & Lewis, W. E. (2007). Improving the

argumentative writing of students with learning disabilities: Descriptive and

normative considerations. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23, 267–285.

Flipped Learning Network. (2014a). Definition of flipped learning. Retrieved from


Flipped Learning Network. (2014b). The four pillars of F-L-I-P. Flipped Learning

Network. Retrieved from



Florence, S. F. L., & Sherine. A. (2016). Teaching connectives through flipped classes

for tertiary students: A study. International Journal of Advances in Arts,

Sciences and Engineering, 4(8), 22 – 31.


Florin, F. (1990). Information landscapes. In S. Ambron, & K. Hooper, (Eds),

Learning with interactive multimedia. Redmond: Microsoft, 28-49.


Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College

Composition and Communication, 32(4), 365-387.


Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2018). How to design and evaluate

research in education (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.


Franklin, H., & Harrington, I. (2019). A review into effective classroom management

and strategies for student engagement: Teacher and student roles in today’s

classrooms. Journal of Education and Traning Studies, 7(12), 1-12.


Fulton, K. (2012). Upside down and inside out: Flip your classroom to improve

student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(8), 12–17.


Gandimathi, A., & Nafiseh, Z. (2018). The impact of critical thinking on learning

English language. Asian Journal of Social Science Research, 1(2), 1-10.


Gao, Z., Gao, S., & Yang, Q. (2017). Cognition-based interactive phases and

strategies in teaching academic reading. Journal of Electronic Science and

Technology, 15(1), 33-40.


García‐Sánchez, S. (2016). Encouraging collaborative interaction in EFL learners

with video role‐plays. ENSAYOS, Revista de la Facultad de Educación de

Albacete, 31(1), 149-164.


Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2006). Input, interaction and output: An overview. AILA

Review, 19(1), 3-17.


Gaudart, H. (1987). English language teaching in Malaysia: A historical account. The

English Teacher, 16, 17-36.


Gedera, D., Williams, J., & Wright, N. (2015). Identifying factors influencing

students; motivation and engagement in online course. In Koh, C. (Ed).

Motivation, leadership and curriculum design: Engaging the next generation

and 21st century learners (pp.13-22). Singapore: Springer Science.


Gelman, S. A. (2009). Learning from others: Children’s construction of concepts.

Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 115–140.


Gerstein, J. (2012) The flipped classroom: The full picture based on an experiential

model of learning. Amazon Digital Services, Incorporated.


Ghaderizefreh, S., & Hoover, M. L. (2018). Student satisfaction with online learning

in a blended course. International Journal of Digital Society, 9(3), 1393-1398.


Ghavifekr, S., & Mahmood, H. (2015). Factors affecting use of e-learning platform

(SPeCTRUM) among university students in Malaysia. Education and

Information Technologies, 1-26.


Goedhart, N. S., Blignaut-van Westrhenen, N., Moser, C., & Zweekhorst, M. B. M.

(2019). The flipped classroom: supporting a diverse group of students in their

learning. Learning Environments Research, 22, 297–310.


Goi, C. L., & Ng, P. Y. (2009). E-learning in Malaysia: Success factors in

implementing e-learning program. International Journal of Teaching and

Learning in Higher Education, 20(2), 237-246.


Gok, T. (2012). The effect of peer instruction on students’ conceptual learning and

motivation. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 13(1),



Goodwin, B & Miller, K. (2013). Evidence on flipped classrooms is still coming in.

Educational Leadership, 70(6), 78-80.


Grabe, W. & Kaplan, R. B. (2016). Theory and practice of writing: An applied

linguistic perspective. New York: Routledge.


Graber, D. A. (1988). Processing the news: How people tame the information tide.

New York: Longman.


Graham, S., Harris, K. R., MacArthur, C., & Schwartz, S. (1991). Writing and writing

instruction with students with learning disabilities: A review of a program of

research. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14, 89-114.


Grajek, S. (2016). Divest, reinvest and differentiate. EDUCAUSE Review,

January/February 2016, 10-15.


Grapragasem, S., Krishnan, A., & Azlin, N. M. (2014). Current trends in Malaysian

higher education and the effect on education policy and practice: An

overview. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(1), 85-93.


Graziano, K. J., & Hall, J. D. (2017). Flipped instruction with English language

learners at a newcomer high school. Journal of Online Learning Research,

3(2), 175-196.


Gunuc, S., & Kuzu, A. (2015). Student engagement scale: Development, reliability

and validity. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. 40(4), 587-610.


Güvenç, G. (2018). The flipped classroom approach in teaching writing: An action

research. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research,

4(3), 421-432.


Guy, R., & Marquis, G. (2016). The flipped classroom: A comparison of student

performance using instructional videos and podcasts versus the lecture-based

model of instruction. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology,

13, 1-13.


Haber, J. (2020). Critical thinking. London: The MIT Press.


Halilah Haron. (2010). Understanding statistics with SPSS: A friendly approach.

Malaysia: University Publication Centre (UPENA).


Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. (2013). A review of flipped

learning. Retrieved from


Hanaa Ouda, K. A. (2016). Flipped learning as a new educational paradigm: An

analytical critical study. European Scientific Journal, 12(10), 417-444.


Handoyo Puji Widodo. (2012). Pedagogical tasks for shaping EFL college student

writers’ critical thinking and self-voicing. International Journal of Innovation

in English Language Teaching, 1(1), 87-99.


Hani Alhasani, Fauzy Mohd Wan & Mona Masood. (2017). A flipped learning design

with peer instruction to engage ESL students. Turkish Online Journal

of Educational Technology, Special Issue for IETC 2017, 9-19.


Hansen-Thomas, H., & Richins, L. G. (2015). ESL mentoring for secondary rural

educators: Math and science teachers become second language specialists

through collaboration. TESOL Journal, 6(4), 766-776.


Harati, H., Blocher, J. M., Armfield, S. W., & Chih, H. T. (2020). Technology

integration in a modified flipped spiraling curriculum: Reversing roles and

rationale. In Alqurashi, E. (Ed). Handbook of research on fostering student

engagement with instructional technology in higher education (pp.388-410).

USA: IGI Global.


Harrison, R., Gemmell, I., & Reed, K. (2014). Student satisfaction with a Web-based

dissertation course: Findings from an international distance learning master’s

programme in public health. The International Review of Research in Open

and Distance Learning, 15(1), 182-202.


Harvey, N. (2013). The effect of peer instruction on ninth grade students’ conceptual

Boston understanding of force and motion (Doctoral Dissertation). Louisiana:

Louisiana State University.


Hassan S. A., Hossein M., & Hassan R. A. (2017). The interrelationship among

critical thinking, writing an argumentative essay in an L2 and their subskills.

The Language Learning Journal, 45(4), 419-433.


Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to

achievement. New York: Routledge.


Hava, K. (2021). The effects of the flipped classroom on deep learning strategies and

engagement at the undergraduate level. Participatory Educational Research,

8(1), 379-394.


Hazita Azman. (2016). Implementation and challenges of English language education

reform in Malaysian primary schools. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of

English Language Studies, 22(3), 65-78.


Hemadevi S., Paramaswari J., & Fauzilah H. (2017). Investigating low proficiency

ESL students’ perception of the use of i-Think maps in writing practices.

Malaysian Journal of ELT Research (MaJER), 14(2), 1-13.


Hemn Adil Karim & Aso Ali Mohammed. (2018). Implementing peer teaching to

enhance English students’ language learning: Kurdish EFL teachers; and

Students’ perspectives. Journal of Garmian University, 5(1), 1-24.


Herreid, C., & Schiller, N. (2013). Case studies and the flipped classroom. Journal of

College Science Teaching, 42, 62-66.


Heslin, P. A. (2009). Better than brainstorming? Potential contextual boundary

conditions to brainwriting for idea generation in organizations. Journal of

Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 129-145.


Hill, L. D., & Levine, F. J. (2015). World education research yearbook 2015. New

York: Routledge.


Hismanoglu, M. (2010). Effective professional development strategies of English

language teachers. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 990-995.


Hojeij, Z., & Hurley, Z. (2017). The triple flip: Using technology for peer and selfediting

of writing. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and

Learning, 11(1), 1-4.


Howell, D. (2013). Effects of an inverted instructional delivery model on achievement

of ninth-grade physical science honors students (Unpublished doctoral

dissertation). Gardner-Webb University, Boiling Springs, NC.


Hrastinski, S. (2019). What do we mean by blended learning? Tech Trends, 63,



Hung, H. T. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster

active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81-96.


Hung, H. T. (2017a). Design-based research: Redesign of an English language course

using a flipped classroom approach. TESOL Quarterly, 51(1), 180–192.


Hung, H. T. (2017b). The integration of a student response system in flipped

classrooms. Language Learning & Technology, 21(1), 16–27.


Hurst, B., Wallace, R., & Nixon, S. B. (2013). The impact of social interaction on

student learning. Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts,

52(4), 375-398.


Hussin, W. N. T. W., Harun, J., & Shukor, N. A. (2019). Online interaction in social

learning environment towards critical thinking skill: A framework. Journal of

Technology and Science Education, 9(1), 4-12.


Inan, N. K., Balakrishnan, K., & Muhammed Refeque. (2019). Flipping perceptions,

engagements and realities: A case study. Turkish Online Journal of Distance

Education, 20 (1), 208-222.


Ishak, T., Kurniawan, R., Zainuddin, Z., & Keumala, C. M. (2020). The role of preclass

asynchronous online video lectures in flipped-class instruction:

Identifying students’ perceived need satisfaction. Journal of Pedagogical

Research, 0(0), 1-11.


Issa, T. (2012, October). Promoting learning skills through teamwork assessment and

self/peer evaluation in higher education. Paper presented at the International

Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International

Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA),

Madrid, Spain.


Jensen, J. L., Kummer, T. A., & Godoy, P. D. M. (2015). Improvements from a

flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning. CBE- Life

Sciences Education, 14, 1-12.


Jeong, Kyeong-Ouk. (2017). The use of Moodle to enrich flipped learning for English

as a foreign language education. Journal of Theoretical and Applied

Information Technology, 95(18), 4845-4852.


Jimenez-Munoz, A. (2015). Flipping lectures: Analysing student workload in EMI

contexts. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 212, 35-41.


Jing, G. U. (2017). Peer teaching in English college classes: An action research to

promote learner autonomy. Cross-Cultural Communication, 13(2), 16-20.


Jing Shao. (2012). A study of multimedia application-based vocabulary acquisition.

English Language Teaching, 5(10), 202-207.


Johan Eddy Luaran, Nor Aziah Alias & Jasmine Jain. (2014). Blended Learning:

Examining Concepts and practices. In Mohamed Amin Embi (Ed.), Blended &

flipped learning: Case studies in Malaysian HEIs (pp. 19-33). Selangor,

Malaysia: Centre for Teaching & Learning Technologies, Universiti

Kebangsaan Malaysia Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education



Johnson, L. W., & Renner, J. D. (2012). Effect of the flipped classroom model on a

secondary computer applications course: Student and teacher perceptions,

questions and student achievement, pp.1-104, Doctoral Dissertation,

University of Louisville.


Jonassen, D. (1991). Objectivism vs constructivism: Do we need a new philosophical

paradigm? Educational Technology, Research and Development, 39(3), 5-13.


Jonassen, D. (1999). Learning with technology: A constructivist perspective. Toronto:



Kang, N. (2015). The comparison between regular and flipped classrooms for EFL

Korean adult learners. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 18, 41-72.


Kannan, V., Kuromiya, H., Gouripeddi, S., Majumdar, R., Warriem, J. M., & Ogata,

H. (2020). Flip & pair – a strategy to augment a blended course with activelearning

components: effects on engagement and learning. Smart Learning

Environments, 34(7), 1-23.


Kara, M. (2019). A systematic literature review: Constructivism in multidisciplinary

learning environments. International Journal of Academic Research in

Education, 4(1-2), 19-26.


Karagöl, I., & Esen, E. (2019). The effect of flipped learning approach on academic

achievement: A meta-analysis study. H. U. Journal of Education, 34(3),



Katz, A., & Kim, J. H. (2017). Teaching strategies and tactics in K-12 blended

education: The flipped classroom model. In N. Ostashewski, J. Howell, & M.

Cleveland-Innes (Eds.), Optimizing K-12 Education through Online and

Blended Learning (pp. 156-184). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.


Kazu, I. Y., & Kurtoğlu, C. (2020). Research of flipped classroom based on students’

perceptions. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 6(3), 505-513.


Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G., Oigara, J. (Eds.). (2014). Promoting active learning

through the flipped classroom model. Hershey, PA: Information Science.


Keppell, M., Suddaby, G., & Hard, N. (2015). Assuring best practice in technologyenhanced

learning environment. Research in Learning Technology, 23(2015),



Khan, S. (2011, March). Salman Khan: Let's use video to reinvent education. Video

on TED: Ideas worth spreading, Retrieved on April 23, 2017, from


Khoo, Y. Y., & Fitzgerald, R. (2017). Peer learning with concept cartoons enhance

critical thinking and performance in secondary school economics. Journal of

Economics and Economic Education Research, 18(1), 1-13.


Kim, M., Kim, S., Khera, O., & Getman, J. (2014). The experience of three flipped

classrooms in an urban university: An exploration of design principles. The

Internet and Higher Education, 22, 37–50.


Kimmons, R., & Caskurlu, S. (2020). The students' guide to learning design and

research. EdTech Books.


Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., Groff, J., & Haas, J. (2009). Using the technology of today

in the classroom of today: the instructional power of digital games, social

networking and simulations, and how teachers can leverage them. Education

Arcade; MIT.


Klimova, B. F. (2015). Teaching and learning enhanced by information and

communication technologies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,

186(2015), 898-902.


Knight, J. K., & Brame, C. J. (2018). Peer Instruction. CBE Life Sciences Education,

17(2), fe5.


Koo, T. K., & Li, M. Y. (2016). A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass

correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic

Medicine, 15(2), 155-163.


Kuh, G. D. (2009). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual and

empirical foundations. New Directions for Institutional Research, 41, 5-20.


Kurniasari, A. I., & Santoso, A. (2016). The teacher’s roles in supporting the ZPD in

the students’ Engish oral communication skills based on the PYP language

scope and sequence of grade EY 3A: A case study. Journal of Language,

Literature, Culture and Education, 12(2), 1-23.


Kvashnina, O. S., & Martynko, E. A. (2016). Analyzing the potential of flipped

classroom in ESL teaching. International Journal of Emerging Technologies

in Learning, 11(3), 71–73.


Kwon, J., & Woo, H. (2017). The impact of flipped learning on cooperative and

competitive mindsets. Sustainability, 10(2), 79.


Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to

creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic

Education, 31, 30-43.


Lam, Y. W., Hew, K. F., & Chiu, K. F. (2018). Improving argumentative writing:

Effects of a blended learning approach and gamification. Language Learning

& Technology, 22(1), 97–118.


Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for

categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174.


Lasni, B. J. (2017). Flipped learning and peer instruction: An attempt to use two

pedagogical approaches to improve comprehension skills. In M. Froggett & S.

Herath, Action research in Sri Lanka: A route to inclusion and social cohesion

(pp. 63-66). Sri Lanka, British Council.


Latifi, S., Noroozi, O., & Talaee, E. (2021). Peer feedback or peer feedforward?

Enhancing students’ argumentative peer learning processes and outcomes.

British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(2), 768-784.


Laurillard, D. (2009). The pedagogical challenges to collaborative technologies.

International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 4(1)

pp. 5-20.


Lee, G., & Wallace, A. (2017). Flipped learning in the English as a foreign language

classroom: Outcomes and perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 1-23.


Lee, K. W., Ng, S. I., Tan, C. K., & Yoon, S. J. (2014). To flip or not to flip the

classroom? Findings from a Malaysian undergraduate course in UMS. In

Mohamed Amin Embi (Ed.), Blended & flipped learning: Case studies in

Malaysian HEIs (pp. 227-252). Selangor, Malaysia: Centre for Teaching &

Learning Technologies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Department of

Higher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia.


Lee, L. (2017a). Rethinking discussion sections with peer instruction: A case study.

Asian Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 11-29.


Lee, Y. J. J. (2017b). Using web-based tools for flipped ESL learning in the Korean

language education system. In C. A. Young & C. M. Moran (Ed.), Applying

the flipped classroom model to English language arts education (pp. 177-195).

Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global.


Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (2009). Social construction of reality. In S. Littlejohn, & K. Foss

(Eds.), Encyclopedia of communication theory (pp. 892-895). Thousand Oaks,

CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.


Leis, A., Cooke, S., & Tohei, A. (2015). The effects of flipped classrooms on English

composition writing in an EFL environment. International Journal of

Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT), 5(4), 37-51.


Levy, F. (2010). How technology changes demand for human skills (OECD Education

Working Papers, No. 45). Paris: OECD Publishing.


Linder, K. E., Bruenjes, L. S., & Smith, S. A. (2017). Hybrid platforms, tools and

resources. New Directions for Institutional Research, 149, 27-36.


Liu, D. (2016). The reform and innovation of English course: A coherent whole of

MOOC, flipped classroom and ESP. Procedia - Social and Behavioral

Science, 232, 280-286.


Liu, F., & Stapleton, P. (2014). Counter argumentation and the cultivation of critical

thinking in argumentative writing: Investigating washback from a high-stakes

test. System, 45, 117-128.


Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in

K-12 education: Possible solutions and recommendations for future research.

Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 12(4).


Lopez-Herrejon, R. E., & Schulman, M. (2004). Using Interactive Technology in a

Short Java Course: An Experience Report. Annual Joint Conference

Integrating Technology into Computer Science Education: Proceedings of the

9th Annual SIGCSE Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer

Science Education, Leeds, UK.


Lu, D., & Xie, Y. (2019). The effects of a critical thinking oriented instructional

pattern in a tertiary EFL argumentative writing course. Higher Education

Research & Development, 38(5), 969-984.


Luo, Z., & O’Steen, B., & Brown, C. (2020). Flipped learning wheel (FLW): A

framework and process design for flipped L2 writing classes. Smart Learning

Environments, 7(10), 1-21.


Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information processing and memory: Theory and

applications. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta

State University.


Lyster, R., & Saito, K. (2010). Corrective feedback in classroom SLA: A metaanalysis.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 265-302.


Mah, B. Y., Umar, I. N., & Chow, V. F. T. (2013). L2 writing challenges for the

undergraduates: A performance analysis and a literature review on SIL

domains. Proceedings of the Asian Conference on Language Learning 2013,

Osaka, Japan, 302-316.


Makoe, P., & McKinney, C. (2009). Hybrid discursive practices in a South African

multilingual primary classroom: A case study. English Teaching Practice and

Critique, 8(2), 80–95.


Maleerat Ka-kan-dee & Sarjit Kaur. (2014). Argumentative writing difficulties of

Thai English major students. Proceedings of the 2014 WEI International

Academic Conference, Bali, Indonesia, 193-207.


Maleerat Ka-kan-dee & Sarjit Kaur. (2015). Teaching strategies used by Thai EFL

lecturers to teach argumentative writing. Procedia – Social and Behavioral

Sciences, 208 (2015), 143-156.


Mansor Fadzil, Latifah, A. L., & Tengku Amira Munira. (2015). MOOCs in

Malaysia: A preliminary case study. E-ASEM Forum: Renewing the lifelong

learning agenda for the future, Bali, Indonesia, 10-11 Mac 2015.


Marsh, D. (2012). Blended learning: Creating learning opportunities for language

learners. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Martin-Beltrán, M., Tigert, J., Peercy, M. M., & Silverman, R. D. (2017). Using

digital texts vs. paper texts to read together: Insights into engagement and

mediation of literacy practices among linguistically diverse students.

International Journal of Educational Research, 82, 135-146.


Marwa, N. A., & Said, S. A. (2015). Peer tutoring effects on Omani students’ English

self-concept. International Education Studies, 8(6), 184-193.


Maryam Bijami, Seyyed Hosein Kashef & Maryam Sharafi Nejad. (2013). Peer

feedback in learning English writing: Advantages and disadvantages. Journal

of Studies in Education, 3(4), 91-97.


Maryam Soleimani, Sima Modirkhamene & Karim Sadeghi. (2017). Peer -mediated

vs. individual writing: Measuriing fluency, complexity, and accuracy in

writing. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 86-100.


Matsuda, P. K., & Silva, T. (2014). Second language writing research: Perspectives

on the process of knowledge construction. New York: Routledge.


Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. Series in Educational

Innovation. NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Mazur, E. (2013). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. UK: Pearson Education.


Mbete, J. S. (2015). Learning management system success: Increasing learning

management system usage in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa.

International Journal of Education and Development using Information and

Communication Technology, 11(2), 51-64.


McCarthy, T. M., & Armstrong, M. I. (2019). Peer-assisted learning: Revisiting the

dyadic interaction process in L2 academic writing, The Asian EFL Journal,

21(3), 6-25.


McCambridge, J., Witton, J., & Elbourne, D. R. (2014). Systematic review of the

Hawthorne effect: New concepts are needed to study research participation

effects. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(3), 267–277.


McGrath, D., Groessler, A., Fink, E., Reidsema, C., & Kavanagh, L. (2017).

Technology in the Flipped Classroom. In Reidsema C., Kavanagh L.,

Hadgraft R., Smith N. (Eds.), The Flipped Classroom. Singapore: Springer.


McKinley, J. (2013). Displaying critical thinking in EFL academic writing: A

discussion of Japanese to English Contrastive Rhetoric, RELC Journal, 44(2),



Maha Bader Alghasab. (2020). Flipping the writing classroom: Focusing on the

pedagogical benefits and EFL learners’ perceptions, English Language

Teaching, 13(4), 28-40.


Mehring, J. G. (2015). An exploratory study of the lived experiences of Japanese

undergraduate EFL students in the flipped classroom (Unpublished doctoral

dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.


Mehring, J. (2016). Present research on the flipped classroom and potential tools for

the EFL classroom. Computers in the Schools, 33(1), 1-10.


Mehring, J. (2018). The flipped classroom. In Mehring, J., & Leis, A. (Eds.),

Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom: Theories and Practices

(pp. 1-9). New York, NY: Springer.


Mehring, J., & Leis, A. (2018). Innovations in flipped learning in the language

classroom: Theories and practice. New York, NY: Springer.


Merriam, S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2020). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive

guide (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Mervat Abd Elfatah, A.S. A. (2016). The effect of a flipping classroom on writing

skill in English as a foreign language and students' attitude towards flipping.

US-China Foreign Language, 14(2), 98-114.


Michell, M., & Sharpe, T. (2005). Collective instructional scaffolding in English as a

Second Language Classrooms, Prospect, 20(1), 31-58.


Miles, M., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A

methods sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.


Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on

our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review. 63, 81–97.


Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. (2018). Educational research: Competencies for analysis

and applications (12th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.


Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2015). Executive summary: Malaysia education

blueprint 2015-2025 (higher education). Malaysia: Ministry of Education.


Mohamad Reza, F., & Zahra, K. S. (2017). Dynamic assessment or schema theory:

The case of listening comprehension. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1-13.


Mohamed Ally, Embi, M. A., & Norman, H. (2019). The impact of MOOCs on

distance education in Malaysia and beyond. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis



Mohammad Zohrabi. (2013). Mixed method research: Instruments, validity, reliability

and reporting findings. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(2), 254-



Mohd Khalid, M. N., & Don Quick. (2016). Teaching presence influencing online

students’ course satisfaction at an institution of higher education. International

Education Studies, 9(3), 62-70.


Morgan, G. A., Barett, K. C., Leech, N. L., & Gloeckner, G. W. (2020). IBM SPSS for

introductory statistics: Use and interpretation (6th ed.). New York, NY:



Morgan, H. (2014). Focus on technology: Flip your classroom to increase academic

achievement. Childhood Education, 90(3): 239-241.


Morgan, M. (2011). A corpus-based investigation into the relationship between

propositional content and metadiscourse in student essay writing. The

University of Nottingham, Ningbo-China campus.


Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., & Kemp, J. E. (2011). Designing

effective instruction (6th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.


Motteram, G. (2013). Innovations in learning technologies for English language

teaching. London: British Council.


Müge Adnan. (2017). Perceptions of senior-year ELT students for flipped classroom:

A materials development course. Computer Assisted Language Learning,

30(3-4), 204-222.


Mukundan, J., & Nimehchisalem, V. (2011). An evaluation of English language

teaching courseware in Malaysia. English Language Teaching, 4(3), 142-150.


Munir, M. T., Baroutian, S., Young, B. R., & Carter, S. (2018). Flipped classroom

with cooperative learning as a cornerstone. Education for Chemical Engineers,

23, 25-33.


Musallam, R. (2010). The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training

tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction

for advanced high school chemistry students (Doctoral dissertation, University

of San Francisco, 2010) (pp. 1-143). UMI Dissertation Publishing. Retrieved

August 23, 2017, from ProQuest LLC.


Myles, J. (2002). Second language writing and research: The writing process and

error analysis in students’ texts. TESL-EJ, 6(2), 1-20.


Nabila Nejmmaoui. (2019). Improving EFL learners’ critical thinking skills in

argumentative writing. English Language Teaching, 12(1), 98-109.


Nabishah Mohamad, Nurulain Abu Bakar, Shafawati Mohd Zulkifli, Norfaezah

Lasman, Tan Wei Hao & Sia Siaw Khing. (2012). Implementation of peer

teaching among medical students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,

60, 529–533.


Nagao, A. (2014). How newcomer English as second language learners become

experienced learners through socialisation in classroom communities. The

Journal of Asia TEFL, 11(2), 93-124.


Najwa Hayaati M. A., Normazla, A. M., & Shaharudin Ismail. (2014). Infusing social

media in teaching and learning (TnL) at tertiary institutions: A case study of

effective communication in Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM). Procedia

– Social and Behavioral Sciences, 155 (2014), 265-270.


Nakkaew, N., & Adunyarittigun, D. (2019). An initial development of an analytic

rubric for assessing critical thinking in English argumentative essays of EFL

college students. REFLections, 26(2), 51-73.


Nami, F., Marandi, S. S., & Sotoudehnama, E. (2018). Interaction in a discussion list:

An exploration of cognitive, social and teaching presence in teachers’ online

collaborations. ReCALL, 30(3), 375-398.


Napier, N. P., Dekhane, S., & Smith, S. (2011). Transitioning to blended learning:

Understanding student and faculty perceptions. Journal of Asynchronous

Learning Networks, 15(1), 20-32.


Neff-van Aertselaer, J., & Dafouz-Milne, E. (2008). Argumentative patterns in

different languages: An analysis of metadiscourse markers in English and

Spanish texts. In Putz, M. & Neff-van Aertselaer, J. (Eds.), Developing

contrastive pragmatics interlanguage and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 87-

102). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.


Nerantzi, C. (2020). The use of peer instruction and flipped learning to support

flexible blended learning during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

International Journal of Management and Applied Research, 7(2), 184-195.


Newton, J. (2013). Incidental vocabulary learning in classroom communication tasks.

Language Teaching Research, 17(2), 164-187.


Ng, K. C. (2001). The case of comprehensible input in teaching and learning the write

stuff. Proceedings of the FIFTH MELTA Biennial International Conference,

Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 5, 11-21.


Ngo, H. K., & Yunus, M. M. (2021). Flipped classroom in English language teaching

and learning: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Academic

Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(3), 185-196.


Nguyen, H. A. V., Tan, C. K., & Lee, K. W. (2019). The affordances of the flipped

classroom approach in English grammar instruction. International Journal of

Education, Psychology and Counseling, 4(33), 95-106.


Nguyen, H. T. (2013). Peer mentoring: A way forward for supporting preservice EFL

teachers psychosocially during the practicum. Australian Journal of Teacher

Education, 38(7), 30-44.


Nguyen, N. Q., Lee, K. W., Nguyen, D. N. P., & Sivabala Naidu. (2019). An

investigation into using flipped classroom model in an academic writing class

in Vietnam. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning

and Teaching, 9(1), 32-57.


Nicol, D., & Boyle, J. (2003). Peer instruction versus class-wide discussion in large

classes: A comparison of two interaction methods in the wired classroom.

Studies in Higher Education, 28(4), 458-472.


Nielsen, K. L., Hansen, G., & Stav, J. B. (2016). How the initial thinking period

affects student argumentation during peer instruction: Students’ experiences

versus observations. Studies in Higher Education, 41(1), 124-138.


Noora Hamdan, McKnight, P., McKnight, K., Arfstrom, K. (2013). The flipped

learning model: A white paper based on the literature review titled a review of

flipped learning. Flipped Learning Network.


Norazah, M. N., Mohamed Amin, E., & Zaidan, A. B. (2011). Integration of elearning

in teaching & learning in Malaysia higher education institutions. In

Mohamed Amin, E. (Eds). E-learning in Malaysian higher education

institutions: status, trend & challenges. Malaysia: Ministry of Higher

Education, pp. 81-98.


Noriah Ismail, Supyan Hussin & Saadiyah Darus. (2012a). ESL students’ attitudes,

learning problems, and needs for online writing. GEMA Online Journal of

Language Studies, 12(4), 1089-1107.


Noriah Ismail, Supyan Hussin & Saadiyah Darus. (2012b). ESL tertiary students’

writing problems and needs: Suggested elements for an additional online

writing program (IQ-Write) for BEL311 course. The International Journal of

Learning, 18(9), 70-80.


Norizan Abdul Razak, Hussein Alakrash & Yasmin Sahboun. (2018). English

language teachers’ readiness for the application of technology towards fourth

industrial revolution demands. Asia-Pacific Journal of Information

Technology and Multimedia, 7(2), 89-98.


Norlaila Abdullah Chik. (2016). Action research: Student’s communication skills

through peer learning method. Journal of Education and Social Policy, 3(6),



Normah Yusof. (2012). Effective uses of computer-based software in teaching the

listening skill in ESL. Malaysian Journal of Educational Technology, 12(1),



Nourollah Zarrinabadi & Aniya Ebrahimi. (2018). Increasing peer collaborative

dialogue using a flipped classroom strategy. Innovation in Language Learning

and Teaching, 13(3), 1-10. doi:10.1080/17501229.2018.1455688


Nor Aniza, A., & Chua, L. N. (2015). Technology and higher education: Using an elearning

tutorial as a pedagogy for innovation and flexible learning. Malaysian

Journal of Distance Education, 17(1), 21-31.


Nor Hafizah, Eunice Ong, Joanna Indra & Seyed Ali Rezvani. (2013). An analysis:

The usage of metadiscourse in argumentative writing by Malaysian tertiary

level of students. English Language Teaching, 6(9), 83-96.


Ntuli, E., & Nyarambi, A. (2017). Learner-centered pedagogy in technology

integrated classrooms: An agenda for teacher preparation and professional

development. In J. Keengwe (Ed.). Handbook of Research on Learner-Centered

Pedagogy in Teacher Education (pp. 291-308). PA: Hershey, IGI Global.


Nuraihan Mat Daud. (2014). Technology in managing an academic institution with a

focus on language faculty. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 20

(Language for Communication and Learning), 136-142.


Nurhidayah, M. S,, Mohamad Hassan, Z, Wan Fara Adlin, W M., Norul Alima, N.,

Ng, S. F., & Hema, R. M. (2012). Peer tutoring and tertiary ESL learners.

Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66(2012), 441-447.


Nurshila Umar Baki, Shameem Rafik Galea & Vahid Nimehchisalem. (2016).

Malaysian rural ESL students critical thinking literacy level: A case study.

International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 4(4), 71-80.


Nur Salina Ismail, Engku Suhaimi Engku Atek, Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi & Mahani

Mohamad. (2015). The role of peer facilitator in enhancing English language

proficiency in a simulated environment. English Language Teaching, 8(2), 78-



O’Flaherty, J., & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher

education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85-95.


Oki, Y. (2016). Flipping a content-based ESL course: An action research report.

Hawaii Pacific University TESOL. Working Paper Series 14, 62-75.


Oláh, K., & Király, I. (2019). Young children selectively imitate models conforming

to social norms. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1399.


Oncu, S., & Ozdilek, Z. (2013). Learning with peers: An interdisciplinary

comparative study of learner interaction and satisfaction on an instructional

design course. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(2), 1251–1261.


Owens, K., McConnell, D. A., Steer, D., Van Horn, S., Knott, J., Borowski, W.,

Mcgrew, H., Dick, J., Greer, l., & Malone, M. (2004). Changing pedagogy to

include 61 conceptests and Peer Instruction in introductory geoscience courses:

the impact on instructors and students. The Geological Society of America

Annual Meeting (Denver).


Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual a step by step guide to data analysis using

SPSS program (6th ed.). London, UK: McGraw-Hill Education.


Pamela, L. M. S., Melor Yunus & Maslawati Mohamad. (2018). The Malaysian

education blueprint 2013 and its effects on English language teaching in

Malaysia. Asian EFL Journal, 20(7), 66-80.


Patru, M., & Balaji V. (2016). Making sense of MOOCs: A guide for policy-makers

in developing countries. Commonwealth of Learning (COL), 1-102.


Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006). The miniature guide to critical thinking: Concepts and

tools (4th ed.). CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.


Pei, Z., Zheng, C., Zhang, M., Liu, F. (2017). Critical thinking and argumentative

writing: Inspecting the association among EFL learners in China. English

Language Teaching, 10(10), 31-42.


Peloghitis, J. (2017). Difficulties and strategies in argumentative writing: A

qualitative analysis. In P. Clements, A. Krause, & H. Brown (Eds.),

Transformation in language education. Tokyo: JALT.


Phillips, C. R., & Trainor, J. E. (2014). Millennial students and the flipped classroom.

Journal of Business & Educational Leadership, 5(1), 102-112.


Piaget, J. (1926). The language and thought of the child. Oxford, England: Harcourt,



Piaget, J. (1936). Origins of intelligence in the child. London: Routledge & Kegan



Piaget, J. (1952). The origin of intelligence in children. New York: International

University Press, Inc.


Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence.

AMC, 10, 12.


Piaget, J. (1959). The language and thought of the child (3rd ed.). London: Routledge

& Kegan Paul.


Piaget, J. (1967). Logic and scientific knowledge. Paris: Gallimard.


Piaget, J. (1977). Epistemology and psychology of functions. Dordrecht, Netherlands:

D. Reidel Publishing Company.


Priniski, J. H., & Horne, Z. (2019). Crowdsourcing effective educational

interventions. In A. K. Goel, C. Seifert, & Freska, C. (Eds.). Proceedings of the

41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin: Cognitive

Science Society.


Pudin, C. S. J. (2017). Exploring flipped learning approach in teaching grammar for

ESL students. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied

Linguistics, 2(1), 51-64.


Pundir, R. & Surana, A., (2016). Constructivism learning: A way to make knowledge.

construction. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(2), 158-162.


Qin, C. (2016). A schema-theory based study on the improvement of the college

students’ English writing. Studies in Literature and Language, 13(2), 34-42.


Rahmasari, B. S. (2017). Peer tutoring: An effective technique to teach reading

comprehension. In Proceedings 4th International Conference on Language,

Society and Culture in Asian Contexts, Malang, Indonesia, 24-25 May 2016, pp.



Rai, L., & Chunrao, D. (2016). Influencing factors of success and failure in MOOC

and general analysis of learner behaviour. International Journal of Information

and Education Technology, 6(4), 262-268.


Raihanah, M. M. (2014). Flipping classroom and meaningful learning among UKM

graduate students: A teacher’s reflection. In Mohamed Amin Embi (Ed.),

Blended & flipped learning: Case studies in Malaysian HEIs (pp. 277-295).

Selangor, Malaysia: Centre for Teaching & Learning Technologies, Universiti

Kebangsaan Malaysia Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education



Rajendran Muthiah. (2015). The effect of computer games on the proficiency of the

B.Ed. teacher trainees in using the conventional expressions in conversations.

Research Journal of Education, 1(1), 1-7.


Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., Abdullah, N. A., Kakudi, H. A., Ali, A. S., Musa, A. S.,

& Yahaya, A. S. (2020). Self-regulated learning in flipped classrooms: A

systematic literature review. International Journal of Information and

Education Technology, 10(11), 848-853.


Rasmitadila, Zulela & Endry Boeriswati. (2017). Peers’ instructional interactions in

inclusive classrooms: Slow learner students and typical students. International

Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 5, 904-911.


Razlina Razali & Rohaiza Jupri. (2014). Exploring teacher written feedback and

student revisions on ESL students’ writing. IOSR Journal of Humanities and

Social Science, 19(5), 63-70.


Robson, C. (2011). Real world research: A resource for social-scientists and

practitioner- researchers (3rd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.


Rohmani, N. I. (2017). Critical thinking, writing performance and topic familiarity of

Indonesia EFL learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(2),



Romito, A. (2014). Peer assisted learning. In R. Mehay (Ed.), The Essential

Handbook for GP Training and Education. Available online at


Roth, W. M. (2000). Authentic school science: Intellectual traditions. In McCormick,

R. & Paechter, C.(eds), Learning & knowledge, London, UK: Paul Chapman

Publishing: 6-20.


Rowley, N., & Green, J. (2015). Just-in-time teaching and peer instruction in the

flipped classroom to enhance student learning. Education in Practice, 2(1),



Roya Jafari Amineh & Hanieh Davatgari Asl. (2015). Review of constructivism and

social-constructivism. Journal of Social Sciences, Literature and Languages,

1(1), 9-16.


Saadiyah Darus. (2008). A framework for a computer-based essay marking system:

Specifically developed for ESL writing. Germany: Lambert Academic



Saeed Rezaei, Ali Derakhshan & Marzieh Bagherkazemi. (2011). Critical thinking in

language education. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(4),



Saif, H. M., & Laszlo, K. (2020). The role of constructivism in the enhancement of

social studies education. Journal of Critical Review, 7(7), 249-256.


Sakulprasertsri, K. (2017). Flipped learning approach: Engaging 21st century learners

in English classrooms. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition

Research Network Journal, 10(2), 132-143.


Salbego, N., & Osborne, D. (2016). Schema activation through pre-reading activities:

Teaching proverbs in L2. Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal

(BELT), 7(2), 175-188.


Salihuddin, S. M., Hasnah, M., Zaleha, A., Norasykin, M. Z., Baharuddin, A., &

Mageswaran, S. (2016). Enhancing student’s higher order thinking skills

HOTS through the Socratic method approach with technology. International

Journal of Knowledge-Based Organizations, 6(4), 14-27.


Saman Ebadi & Masoud Rahimi. (2018). An exploration into the impact of

WebQuest-based classroom on EFL learners’ critical thinking and academic

writing skills: A mixed-methods study. Computer Assisted Language

Learning, 31(5-6), 617-651.


Sams, A., & Bergmann, J. (2013). Flip your students’ learning. Educational

Leadership, 7, 16-20.


Sandhu, S., Sankey, M., & Donald P. (2019). Developing a flipped classroom

framework to improve tertiary education students’ learning engagements in

India. International Journal of Education and Development using Information

and Communication Technology, 15(2), 31-44.


Santikarn, B., & Wichadee, S. (2018). Flipping the classroom for English language

learners: A study of learning performance and perceptions. International

Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 13(09), 123-135.


Schell, J. A., & Butler, A. C. (2018). Insights from the science of learning can inform

evidence-based implementation of peer instruction. Frontiers in Education, 3,

1-13. doi:10.3389/feduc.2018.00033


Schneer, D. (2014). Rethinking the argumentative essay. TESOL, 5(4), 619 - 653.


Schunk, D. H. (2019). Learning theories, an educational perspective (8th ed.).

Boston, MA Pearson Education Inc.


Sevy, J. (2016). Teaching a large multi-level class using different strategies and

activities to motivate English language learning. Studies in English

Language and Education, 3(2), 91-99.


Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasiexperimental

designs for generalized causal inference. Houghton, Mifflin and



Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human

information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a

general theory. Psychological Review, 84(2), 127-190.


Shih, H. J., & Huang, S. C. (2019). College students’ metacognitive strategy use in an

EFL flipped classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-30.



Shooshtari, Z. G., & Mir, F. (2014). ZPD, tutor, peer scaffolding: Sociocultural theory

in writing strategies application. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98,



Shyamlee, S. D., & Phil, M. (2012). Use of technology in English language teaching

and learning: An analysis. In Proceedings 2012 International Conference on

Language, Medias and Culture, Chennai, India, 10-11 March 2012,

pp. 151-156.


Siti Sarah, M. J., & Issham Ismail. (2011). The effectiveness of e-learning portal in

distance education as perceived by students in Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, 13(1), 47-57.


Smith, L. L. (2010). Exploring the advantages of blended instruction at community

colleges and technical schools. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and

Teaching, 6(2), 508-515.


Soliman, N. A. (2016). Teaching English for academic purposes via the flipped

learning approach. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232(2016), 122-



Soltanpour, F., & Valizadeh, M. (2018). A flipped writing classroom: Effects on EFL

learners’ argumentative essays. Advances in Language and Literary Studies,

9(1), 5-13.


Song, H. S. Y., Murphy, A., Farley, H. (2013). Mobile devices for learning in

Malaysia: Then and now. 30th Ascilite Conference, Macquarie University,

Sydney, 1-4 December 2014.


Spacco, J., Parris, J., & Simaon, B. (2013). How we teach impacts student learning:

Peer instruction vs. lecture in CS. In Proceedings of the 44th Technical

Symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 41-46). New York: ACM.


Stapleton, P., & Wu, Y. (2015). Assessing the quality of arguments in students'

persuasive writing: A case study analyzing the relationship between surface

structure and substance. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 17, 12-23.


Stickler, U., & Shi, L. (2016). TELL us about CALL: An introduction to the virtual

special issue (VSI) on the development of technology enhanced and computerassisted

language learning published in the System Journal. System, 56, 119-



Stillwell, C. (2009). The collaborative development of teacher training skills. ELT

Journal, 63(4), 353-362.


Strayer, J. F. (2008). The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: A

comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom

that used an intelligent tutoring system (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).

Ohio State University, United States.


Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation,

innovation and task orientation. Learning Environment Research, 15(2),



Strelan, P., Osborn, A., & Palmer, E. (2020). The flipped classroom: A meta-analysis

of effects on student performance across disciplines and education levels.

Educational Research Review, (2020),



Styati, E. W., & Latief, M. A. (2018). Investigating dominant and passive students on

pair work towards the students’ writing performance. 3L: Language,

Linguistics, Literature, 24(3), 142-154.


Styslinger, M. E., & Overstreet, J. F. (2014). Strengthening argumentative writing

with speaking and listening (socratic) circles. Voices from the Middle, 22(1),



Sultan, F. K. P. D., Narayansany, K. S., Kee, H. L., Kuan, C. H., & Manickam, M. K.

P. (2013). Helping students with difficult first year subjects through the PASS

program. Journal of Peer Learning, 6(1), 59–75.


Sun, F. (2014). The application of schema theory in teaching college English writing.

Theory ad Practice in Language Studies, 4(7), 1476-1482.


Sung, K. (2015). A case study on a flipped classroom in an EFL content course.

Multimedia-Assisted. Language Learning, 18(2), 159-187.


Sung, Y. T., Chang, K. E., & Liu, T. C. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile

devices with teaching and learning on students’ learning performance: A metaanalysis

and research synthesis. Computers & Education, 94, 252-275.


Suriati Salleh & Nurahimah Mohd Yusoff. (2016). Teachers’ attitudes and beliefs

towards the use of student-centred learning in English language classes.

Proceedings of International Seminar on Generating Knowledge Through

Research, UUM-UMSIDA, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, 1, 327-334.


Swain, M. (2005). The output hypothesis: Theory and research. In E. Hinkel,

Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum.


Szabo, Z. & Schwartz, J. (2011). Learning methods for teacher education: The use of

online discussion to improve critical thinking. Technology, Pedagogy and

Education, 20(1). 79-94.


Talbert, R. (2014). Inverting the Linear Algebra classroom. PRIMUS: Problems,

Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies, 24, 361–374.


Talbert, R. (2017). Flipped learning: A guide for higher education faculty. Sterling,

Virginia: Stylus Publishing.


Tullis, J. G., & Goldstone, R. L. (2020). Why does peer instruction benefit student

learning? Cognitive Research Principles and Implications, 5(15), 1-12.


Tan, K. E. (2016). Using online discussion forums to support learning of

paraphrasing. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(6), 1239–1249.


Tang, W., Hu, J., Zhang, H., Wu, P., & He, H. (2015). Kappa coefficient: A popular

measure of rater agreement. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 27(1), 62-67.


Tapper, J. (2004). Student perceptions of how critical thinking is embedded in a

degree program. Higher Education Research and Development, 23(2),



Taylor, S. E., & Crocker, J. (1981). Schematic bases of social information processing.

In E. T. Higgins, C. P. Herman, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition: The

Ontario Symposium (Vol. 1, pp. 89—134). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Thuong, N. (2018). Implementation of English flipped classrooms: Students’

perceptions and teacher’s reflection. International Journal of Research Studies

in Language Learning, 7(3), 87-108.


Tiew, F., & Goi, C. L. (2011). Grading classroom participation through peer

assessment: Perception and experience of marketing students. Proceedings of

the Enhancing Learning: Teaching and Learning Conference 2011, Curtin

University, Sarawak, Malaysia, 25-26 November 2011.


Toulmin, S. (2003). The uses of argument (updated edition). Cambridge MA:

Cambridge University Press.


Tous, D. M., Tahriri, A., & Haghighi, S. (2015). The effect of instructing critical

thinking through debate on the EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Journal

of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 15(4), 21-40.


Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom: Online instruction at home frees class time

for learning. Education Next,12(1), 82-83.


Tullis, J. G., & Goldstone, R. L. (2020). Why does peer instruction benefit student

learning? Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5(15), 1-12.


Tuzlukova, V., Al Busaidi, S., & Burns, S. L. (2017). Critical thinking in the language

classroom: Teacher beliefs and methods. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences

and Humanities, 25(2), 615-634.


Tran ThiThanhQuyen. (2017). Students’ perceptions of flipped model on Facebook

for educational purposes. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education,

7(3), 7-14.


van Alten, D. C. D., Phielix, C., Janssen, J., & Kester, L. (2020). Self-regulated

learning support in flipped learning videos enhances learning outcomes.

Computers & Education, 158, 1-16.


Vaughan, N. (2014). Student engagement and blended learning: Making the

assessment connection. Education Sciences, 4, 247-264.


Veliz, L., & Veliz, M. (2019). An interrogation of the role of critical thinking in

English language pedagogy in Chile. Teaching in Higher Education, 24(1),



Verenikina, I. (2008). Scaffolding and learning: Its role in nurturing new learners. In

P. Kell, W. Vialle, D. Konza, & G. Vogl (Eds.), Learning and the learner:

Exploring learning for new times (pp. 161–180). Wollongong: University of

Wollongong, Australia.


Vieira, M. M. D. S., & Neto, B. G. A. (2016). Peer instruction: Continuing teacher

education in higher education. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217,



Voss, E., & Kostka, I. (2019). Flipping academic English language learning.

Singapore: Springer Singapore.


Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.


Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Vyncke, M. (2012). The concept and practice of critical thinking in academic writing:

An investigation of international students’ perceptions and writing experiences.

King's College London: Department of Education and Professional Studies.


Wachob, P. (2011). Critical friendship circles: The cultural challenge of cool

feedback. Professional Development in Education, 37(3), 353-372.


Wagner-Loera, D. (2018). Flipping the ESL/EFL classroom to reduce cognitive load:

A new way of organizing your classroom. In Mehring, J., & Leis, A. (Eds.),

Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom: Theories and Practices (pp.

169-184). New York, NY: Springer.


Waleed Mugahed Al-Rahmi, Mohd Shahizan Othman & Lizawati Mi Yusuf. (2015).

The effectiveness of using e-learning in Malaysian higher education: A case

study Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Mediterranean Journal of Social

Sciences, 6(5), 625-637.


Wallen, N. E., & Fraenkel, J. R. (2013). Educational research: A guide to a process

(2nd ed.). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.


Wang, S. and Wang, H. (2011). Teaching higher order thinking in the introductory

MIS course: A model-directed approach. Journal of Education for Business,

86, 208–213.


Watkins, J., & Mazur, E. (2010). Just-in-time teaching and peer instruction. In

Simkins, S. P., & Maier, M. H. (Eds). Just-in-time teaching: Across the

disciplines, across the academy. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.


Wayman, M. M., McMaster, K. L., Sáenz, L. M., & Watson, J. A. (2010). Using

curriculum-based measurement to monitor secondary English language

learners' responsiveness to peer-mediated reading instruction. Reading and

Writing Quarterly, 26(4), 308-332.


Webb, M., & Doman, E. (2016). Does the flipped classroom lead to increased gains

on learning outcomes in ESL/EFL contexts? The CATESOL Journal, 28(1),



Webb, M., Doman, E., & Pusey, K. (2014). Flipping a Chinese university EFL course:

What teachers and students think of the model. Journal of Asia TEFL, 11(4),



Wessel, A. (2015). Peer learning strategies in the classroom. Journal on Best

Teaching Practices, 2(1), 14-16.


Widdowson, H. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 377–389.

Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (2009). Research methods in education: An introduction.

Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.


Wilson, B. G. (Ed.). (1996). Constructivist learning environments: Case studies in

instructional design. Educational Technology Publications. Englewood Cliffs



Wilson, S. G. (2013). The flipped class: A method to address the challenges of an

undergraduate statistics course. Teaching of Psychology, 40(3), 193-199.


Wingate, U. (2012). ‘Argument!’ helping students understand what essay writing is

about. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11(2012), 145-154.


Wright, J. (2014). Participation in the classroom: Classification and assessment

techniques. Teaching Innovation Projects, 4(1), 1-11.


Yang, Y. F., & Lin, Y. Y. (2015). Online collaborative note-taking strategies to foster

EFL beginners’ literacy development. System, 52(2015), 127-138.


Yang, Y. T. C., & Gamble, J. (2013). Effective and practical critical thinkingenhanced

EFL instruction. ELT Journal, 67(4), 398-412.


Yarbro, J., Arfstrom, K. M., McKnight, K., & McKnight, P. (2014). Extension of a

review of flipped learning. Flipped Learning Network, Retrieved from Accessed 5 June 2017.


Yastibas, A. E., & Yastibas, G. C. (2015). The use of e-portfolio-based assessment to

develop students’ self-regulated learning in English language teaching.

Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176(2015), 3-13.


Yeen-Ju, H. T., Mai, N., & Bhawani Selvaretnam. (2015). Enhancing problemsolving

skills in an authentic blended learning environment: A Malaysian

context. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 5(11),



Yilmaz, C. (2011a). Teachers' perceptions of self-efficacy, English proficiency, and

instructional strategies. Social Behavior and Personality: An International

Journal, 39, 91-100.


Yilmaz, K. (2011b). The cognitive perspective on learning: Its theoretical

underpinnings and implications for classroom practices. The Clearing House:

A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 84(5), 204-212.


Yousif, A. A., & Meshail, M. A. (2012). The effects of using WebQuests on

reading comprehension performance of Saudi EFL students. Turkish Online

Journal of Educational Technology, 11(4), 295-306.


Yu, Z. & Wang, G. (2016). Academic achievements and satisfaction of the clickeraided

flipped business English writing. class. Educational Technology &

Society, 19(2), 298–312. 298.


Yu, Z., & Zhu, Q. (2019). Schema theory-based flipped classroom model assisted

with technologies. International Journal of Information and Communication

Technology Education (IJICTE), 15(2), 31-48.


Yujing, N. (2015). Influence of flipped classroom on learner's empowerment - A

study based on English writing courses in China. Journal of Literature,

Languages and Linguistics, 12, 1-7.


Yunus, A. S. M., Hamzah, R., Tarmizi, R. A., Abu, R., Nor, S. M., Ismail, H., &

Bakar, K. A. (2006). Problem solving abilities of Malaysian university students.

International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education,17(2), 86-



Zainuddin, Z., & Perera, C. J. (2019). Exploring students’ competence, autonomy and

relatedness in the flipped classroom pedagogical model. Journal of Further and

Higher Education, 43(1), 115-126.


Zamzami Zainuddin, Hussein Haruna, Xiuhan Li, Yin Zhang & Samuel Kai Wah

Chu. (2019). A systematic review of flipped classroom empirical evidence from

different fields: What are the gaps and future trends? On the Horizon, 27(2), 72-



Zamzami Zainuddin & Mohammad Attaran. (2015). Malaysian students’ perceptions

of flipped classroom: A case study. Innovations in Education and Teaching

International, 53(6), 660-670.


Zamzami Zainuddin & Siti Hajar Halili. (2016). Flipped classroom research and

trends from different fields of study. The International Review of Research in

Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3), 313-340.


Zeynep Turan, & Akdag-Cimen, B. (2019). Flipped classroom in English language

teaching: A systematic review. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-17.


Zhang, D., Zhao, L., Zhou, L., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2004). Can e-learning replace

classroom learning? Communications of the ACM - New architectures for

financial services, 47(5), 75-79.


Zhang, F. (2017). Quality-improving strategies of college English teaching based on

microlesson and flipped classroom. English Language Teaching, 10(5),



Zhang, F., & Barber, B. (2008). Handbook of research on computer-enhanced

language acquisition and learning. USA: IGI Global.


Zhang, P., Ding, L., & Mazur, E. (2017). Peer instruction in introductory physics: A

method to bring about positive changes in students’ attitudes and beliefs.

Physical Review Physics Education Research, 113(1), 1-9.


Zhang, X. (2018). Developing college EFL writers’ critical thinking skills through

online resources: A case study. SAGE Open, 8(4), 1-12.


Zhao, X., & Zhu, L. (2012). Schema theory and college English reading teaching.

English Language Teaching, 5(11), 111-117.


Zheng, D., Young, M. F., Wagner, M., & Brewer, R. A. (2009). Negotiation for

action: English language learning in game-based virtual worlds. The Modern

Language Journal, 93(4), 489-511.


Zohreh, G. S., & Farzaneh, M. (2014). ZPD, Tutor; Peer scaffolding: Sociocultural

theory in writing strategies application. Procedia – Social and Behavioral

Sciences, 98, 1771-1775.


Zou, D., & Xie, H. (2018). Flipping an English writing class with technologyenhanced

just-in-time teaching and peer instruction. Interactive Learning

Environments, 26, 1-16.


This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.

Back to previous page

Installed and configured by Bahagian Automasi, Perpustakaan Tuanku Bainun, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
If you have enquiries with this repository, kindly contact us at or Whatsapp +60163630263 (Office hours only)