UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
Start | FAQ | About

QR Code Link :

Type :thesis
Subject :MT Musical instruction and study
Main Author :Tan, Gwendolina Shirney Swee Neo
Title :A study of music performance self-efficacy amongst students participating in music festivals
Place of Production :Tanjong Malim
Publisher :Fakulti Muzik dan Seni Persembahan
Year of Publication :2021
Corporate Name :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
PDF Guest :Click to view PDF file
PDF Full Text :Login required to access this item.

Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
The purpose of this study is to look into the students’ music performance self-efficacy who performed in the music festivals in Malay Gamelan and Wind Orchestra categories. All the four sources of self-efficacy in Bandura’s social cognitive theory which are 1) mastery experiences; 2) vicarious experiences; 3) verbal or social persuasion; and 4) physiological state were investigated. A survey method using Music Performance Self- Efficacy Scale (MPSES) by Zelenak (2011) was used. The data collected were then administered using descriptive analysis of mean to identify the highest to the lowest on the sources of self-efficacy. 150 Malaysian secondary school music students aged 14- 17 participated and completed the 30-item questionnaire online. The results shown that among the four sources of self-efficacy; mastery experiences had the highest mean (M = 4.23 on a 5-point scale). Whilst, the physiological state had the least mean (M = 3.85). The findings indicated that mastery experiences had the biggest impacts on students’ self-efficacy. The results of this study will provide music teachers and students with an understanding of maintaining and improving students’ self-efficacy in music performance. The study implicates that both the teachers and students can identify and focus more on sources of self-efficacy that the students lack off to help them increase their level of self-efficacy.


Ackerman, C. E. (2019, July 3). What is self-efficacy theory in psychology? Definition

& examples. efficacy/


Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.

Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.



Bandura, A. (1978). The self-system in reciprocal determinism. American

Psychologist, 33(4), 344-358.


Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy.


Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.


Benton, S. A. (2019, Jun 6). "Worry" is a useless emotion! Research shows it is truly

a waste of time. Psychology Today.



Bilge, F., Tuzgol D. M., & Cetin, B. (2014). Factors affecting burnout and school

engagement among high school students: Study habits, self- efficacy beliefs,

and academic success. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(5), 1721-



Bosler, A., & Greene, D. [TED-Ed]. (2017, February 27). How to practice effectively...

for just about anything - Annie Bosler and Don Greene [Video File].

Retrieved from


Brady, S. T., Hard, B. M., & Gross, J. J. (2018). Reappraising test anxiety increases

academic performance of first-year college students. Journal of Educational

Psychology, 110(3), 395-406. 110. 10.1037/edu0000219


Brummelman, E., Crocker, J., & Bushman, B. J. (2016). The praise paradox: When

and why praise backfires in children with low self-esteem. Child Development

Perspectives, 10(2), 111-115. 10.1111/cdep.12171


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Anxiety. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved

March 22, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Emotion. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved

March 22, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Experience. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved

March 10, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Mastery. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved

March 10, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Model. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved March

15, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Motivation. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved

March 18, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Observe. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved

March 15, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Physiological. In Cambridge dictionary.

Retrieved March 22, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Stress. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved March

22, 2020, from


Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Vicarious. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved

March 15, 2020, from


Cherry, K. (2019, October 7). Self-efficacy and why believing in yourself matters.



Cherry, K. (2019, September 6). How observational learning affects behavior.

Verywellmind. Retrieved from



Cherry, K. (2019, November 15). Extrinsic motivation. Verywellmind.


Cherry, K. (2020, January 13). The 6 types of basic emotions and their effect on human

behavior. Verywellmind.



Collins. (n.d.). Performance. In Collins dictionary. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from


Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed

methods approaches (4th ed.). U.S.A.: SAGE Publications.


Crocker, L. & Algina, J. (2008). Introduction to classical and modern test theory (3rd

ed.). Ohio: Cengage Learning.


DeFranzo, S. E. (2012, August 15). 4 main benefits of survey research. Snap Surveys.


Dimitriadis, M. (2020). 12 ways to help students develop 21st century skills with

makers empire. Makers Empire.



Doble, Gerard T. (2018). The influence of individuals’ middle school, high school, and

undergraduate college music performance experiences on self- efficacy and

Perceptions of their own success as adults [Doctoral Disetation, Western

Connecticut State University]. Education Dissertations.


Ekman, P. (1999). Basic emotion. In T. Dalgleish & M.J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of

Cognition and Emotion (pp. xlv-lx). John Wiley & Sons.


Engle, J. (2020, March 11). Stress, worry and anxiety are all different. How do you

cope with each? The New York Times.


Estrella, E. (2019, January 24). The Orff approach to music education for children.



Farnsworth-Grodd, V. A. (2012). Mindfulness and the self-regulation of music

performance anxiety [Doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland].

University of Auckland Research Repository – ResearchSpace.



Feltz, D. L., Short, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (2008). Self-efficacy in sport. U.S.A: Human



Freeman, J. R. (2004). Learning strategies. LD Online.


Franklin, N. (2018, June 14). Trinity’s piano technical work – developing the all-round

musician. Trinity College London.



Ganti, A. (2020, February 19). Correlation coefficient. Investopedia.


Ghazali Darusalam & Sufean Hussin (2016). Metodologi penyelidikan dalam

pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.


Gillespie, A., & Reader, T. W. (2021). Identifying and encouraging high-quality

healthcare: an analysis of the content and aims of patient letters of

compliment. BMJ quality & safety, 30(6), 484–492.


Gogus, A. (2012). Peer learning and assessment. In Encyclopedia of the Sciences of

Learning. (pp. 2572-2576). Boston, MA: Springer.


Goh, S. C. (2009). Preliminary study of approaches to learning and teaching selfefficacy

of student-teachers in Malaysia. Jurnal Pendidikan Bitara UPSI, 2(1),



Gouzouasis, P., & Henderson, A. (2012). Secondary student perspectives on musical

and educational outcomes from participation in band festivals. Music

Education Research, 14(4), 479-498. 10.1080/14613808.2012.714361


Green, L. (2014). Hear, listen, play: How to free your students' aural, improvisation and

performance skills. Psychology of Music 40(1), 42-65.



Haddon, E. (2013). Observational learning in the music masterclass. British Journal

of Music Education, 31, 55-68. 10.1017/S0265051713000223


Hanken, I. M. (2016). Peer learning in specialist higher music education. Arts &

Humanities in Higher Education, 15(3–4), 364–375.



Henson, R. K. (2001). Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: A

conceptual primer on coefficient alpha. Measurement and Evaluation in

Counseling and Development, 34(3), 177-189.


Ho, L. (2020). Why you have the fear of failure (and how to overcome it).



Holmes, J., & Brown, D. F. (1987). Teachers and students learning about compliment.

TESOL Quarterly, 21(3), 523-546.


IGI Global. (n.d.). Verbal persuasion. In dictionary search. Retrieved

March 18, 2020, from



Ilse, R. M. L. (2016). The impact of self-efficacy enhancing techniques on student

self-efficacy beliefs (ProQuest NO. 10135045) [Doctoral Dissertation].

ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database.


Kaczmarek, L.D. (2017). Eudaimonic motivation. In Zeigler-Hill, V. & Shackelford, T.

(Ed.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences.


Karlsen, S. (2009). Learning through music festivals. International Journal of

Community Music, 2(2&3), 129-141. 10.1386/ijcm.2.2-3.129_1


Karlsen, S., & Brändström, S. (2008). Exploring the music festival as a music

educational project. International Journal of Music Education, 26(4), 363–



Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2017). Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan

Pentaksiran Pendidikan Muzik Tingkatan 3.



Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2020). Takwim utama sukan, kokurikulum dan

kesenian Tahun 2020.



Lamont, A. (2012). Emotion, engagement and meaning in strong experiences of

music performance. Psychology of Music, 40(5), 574–594.



Lawrence, E. M., Rogers, R. G., & Wadsworth, T. (2015). Happiness and longevity in

the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 145, 115–119.


Lenz, B. K., & Hughes, C. A. (1990). A word identification strategy for adolescents

with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(3), 149–158.


Lexico. (n.d.). Code. In Retrieved March 10, 2020, from


Lexico. (n.d.). Music festival. In Retrieved March 10, 2020, from


Lowe, G. M. (2018). Competition versus cooperation: Implications for music

teachers following students feedback from participation in a large-scale

cooperative music festival. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5),



Lund, A., & Lund, M. (2018). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Laerd Statistics.



Marano, H., E. (2004, March 1). The art of the compliment: Everyone needs to know

how to give and receive compliments. Psychology Today.


Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4),



Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.


Matei, R. & Ginsborg, J. (2017). Music performance anxiety in classical musicians –

what we know about what works. BJPsych International, 14(2), 33-35.


Maynard, L. M. (2006). The role of repetition in the practice sessions of artist teachers

and their students. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education,

167, 61-72.


Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Compliment. In dictionary. Retrieved

March 18, 2020, from https://www.merriamwebster.



Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Experience. In dictionary. Retrieved

March 10, 2020, from https://www.merriamwebster.



Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Mastery. In dictionary. Retrieved

March 10, 2020, from


Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Social. In dictionary. Retrieved

March 18, 2020, from


McCormick, J. & McPherson, G. E. (2003). The role of self-efficacy in a musical

performance examination: an exploratory structural equation analysis.

Psychology of Music, 31(1), 37-51.


McDonald, M. [CliftonStrengths]. (2018, August 22). Heroes and stars among us:

The power of recognition (S6E31) [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.


McPherson, G. E. & McCormick, J. (2000). The contribution of motivational factors

to instrumental performance in a music examination. Research Studies in

Music Education, 15, 31-39.


McPherson, G. E. & Renwick, J. (2001). A longitudinal study of self-regulation in

children's musical practice. Music Education Research, 3, 169-186.



MindTools. (2020). Overcoming fear of failure facing your fear of moving forward.


Narkhede, S. (2018, June 8). Understanding descriptive statistics. Towards data science.


Nawaz Ahmad & Afsheen Rana. (2015). Impact of Music on Mood: Empirical

Investigation. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(21), 98-101.


Nichols, J. R. (2019, June 8). 4 essential rules of 21st century learning. Teach Thought.


Nielsen, S. G. (1999). Regulation of learning strategies during practice: A case study

of a single church organ student preparing a particular work for a concert

performance. Psychology of Music, 27, 218–229.


Nielsen, S. G., Johansen, G. G., & Jørgensen, H. (2018). Peer learning in instrumental

practicing. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 339. 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00339


Niles, L. (2012). What is the Suzuki Method?


Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Human Learning (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.


Packer, J., & Ballantyne, J. (2011). The impact of music festival attendance on young

people’s psychological and social well-being. Psychology of Music, 39(2),



Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2012). What is psychology? (3rd ed.). Canada:

Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.


Pitts, S. (2012). Chances and choices exploring the impact of music education. New

York: Oxford University Press.


Rabideau, S. T. (2005, November). Effects of achievement motivation on behaviour.


Revilla, M. A., Saris, W. E. & Krosnick, J. A. (2014). Choosing the number of

categories in agree-disagree scales. Sociological Methods & Research, 43(1)

73-97. 10.1177/0049124113509605


Robinson, J. (2006, November 9). In praise of praising your employees: Frequent

recognition is a surefire -- and affordable -- way to boost employee engagement.




Roden, I., Grube, D., Bongard, S., & Kreutz, G. (2013). Does music training enhance

working memory performance? Findings from a quasi-experimental

longitudinal study. Psychology of Music, 42(2), 284-298.



Salisu, A. & Ransom, E. (2014). The role of modeling towards impacting quality

education. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 32, 54-61.



Schein, C. (2014). The value of integrating social media tools into organizational

learning processes (UMI NO. 3611907) [Doctoral’s dissertation]. ProQuest

Dissertations & Theses database.


Schiffrin, H. H. & Nelson, S. K. (2008). Stressed and happy? Investigating the

relationship between happiness and perceived stress. Journal of Happiness

Studies, 11, 33-39. 10.1007/s10902-008-9104-7


Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman,

S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio.

Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37).


Shaffer, D. R. (2000). Social and personality development (4th ed.). U.S.A.:



Share to know. (2017).



Soto, K. (2017, September 13). Perfect practice makes perfect vs practice makes perfect.

Linked in.



Stone, S. M. (2017). Observational learning. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved

from Encyclopædia Britannica, inc.


Talib Lawal. (2016, March 29). Learning does not only happen in classrooms.



Teachers Are Role Models. (n.d.).



The Healthline Editorial Team. (2020, March 29). Stress and anxiety. Healthline.


Usher, E. L. & Pajares, F. (2009). Sources of self-efficacy in mathematics: A

validation study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 89-101.



Vandergriendt, C. (2018, September 18). What Is the Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion?



Weinstein, Y., & Smith, M. (2016, December 11). 6 powerful learning strategies you

must share with students. (J. Gonzalez, Interviewer). Cult of Pedagogy. https://


Weiser, D.A. & Riggio, H.R. (2010). Family background and academic achievement:

Does self-efficacy mediate outcomes? Social Psychology of Education, 13,



Whitbourne, S. K. (2013, May 11). 9 types of compliments and why they work (or not):

Improve your compliments with these 9 simple tips. Psychology Today.



Yoo, G. E., Kim, J., Choi, D. I., Yeo, M. S., Kim, S. J., & Na, S. (2020). Music

experience is associated with lower depression level and higher quality of life

among family caregivers of critically ill patients. Psychology of Music, 49(4),



Zandstra, M. (2017). Well done! The influence of compliments on performance

[Master thesis, Leiden University].

20Merel-s1137190-MA%20Thesis%20SOP- 2017.pdf?sequence=1


Zelenak, M. S. (2010). Development and validation of the music performance selfefficacy

scale. Music Education Research International, 4, 31-43.


Zelenak, M. S. (2011). Self-efficacy in music performance: Measuring the sources

among secondary school music students (UMI NO. 3466262) [Doctoral

dissertation, University of South Florida]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses



Zhukov, K. (2009). Effective practising: A research perspective. Australian Journal of

Music Education, 1, 3-12.


Zimmer, D. (n.d.). A daily practice routine.


Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary

Educational Psychology, 25, 82–91.


This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.

Back to previous page

Installed and configured by Bahagian Automasi, Perpustakaan Tuanku Bainun, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
If you have enquiries with this repository, kindly contact us at or Whatsapp +60163630263 (Office hours only)