UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
|Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris|
|The purpose of this study is to look into the students’ music performance self-efficacy
who performed in the music festivals in Malay Gamelan and Wind Orchestra categories.
All the four sources of self-efficacy in Bandura’s social cognitive theory which are 1)
mastery experiences; 2) vicarious experiences; 3) verbal or social persuasion; and 4)
physiological state were investigated. A survey method using Music Performance Self-
Efficacy Scale (MPSES) by Zelenak (2011) was used. The data collected were then
administered using descriptive analysis of mean to identify the highest to the lowest on
the sources of self-efficacy. 150 Malaysian secondary school music students aged 14-
17 participated and completed the 30-item questionnaire online. The results shown that
among the four sources of self-efficacy; mastery experiences had the highest mean (M
= 4.23 on a 5-point scale). Whilst, the physiological state had the least mean (M = 3.85).
The findings indicated that mastery experiences had the biggest impacts on students’
self-efficacy. The results of this study will provide music teachers and students with an
understanding of maintaining and improving students’ self-efficacy in music
performance. The study implicates that both the teachers and students can identify and
focus more on sources of self-efficacy that the students lack off to help them increase
their level of self-efficacy.|
Ackerman, C. E. (2019, July 3). What is self-efficacy theory in psychology? Definition
& examples. PositivePsychology.com.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-
Bandura, A. (1978). The self-system in reciprocal determinism. American
Psychologist, 33(4), 344-358. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.33.4.344
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Benton, S. A. (2019, Jun 6). "Worry" is a useless emotion! Research shows it is truly
a waste of time. Psychology Today.
Bilge, F., Tuzgol D. M., & Cetin, B. (2014). Factors affecting burnout and school
engagement among high school students: Study habits, self- efficacy beliefs,
and academic success. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(5), 1721-
Bosler, A., & Greene, D. [TED-Ed]. (2017, February 27). How to practice effectively...
for just about anything - Annie Bosler and Don Greene [Video File].
Brady, S. T., Hard, B. M., & Gross, J. J. (2018). Reappraising test anxiety increases
academic performance of first-year college students. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 110(3), 395-406. 110. 10.1037/edu0000219
Brummelman, E., Crocker, J., & Bushman, B. J. (2016). The praise paradox: When
and why praise backfires in children with low self-esteem. Child Development
Perspectives, 10(2), 111-115. 10.1111/cdep.12171
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Anxiety. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved
March 22, 2020, from
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Emotion. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved
March 22, 2020, from
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Experience. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved
March 10, 2020, from
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Mastery. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved
March 10, 2020, from
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Model. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved March
15, 2020, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/model
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Motivation. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved
March 18, 2020, from
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Observe. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved
March 15, 2020, from
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Physiological. In Cambridge dictionary.
Retrieved March 22, 2020, from
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Stress. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved March
22, 2020, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/stress
Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Vicarious. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved
March 15, 2020, from
Cherry, K. (2019, October 7). Self-efficacy and why believing in yourself matters.
Cherry, K. (2019, September 6). How observational learning affects behavior.
Verywellmind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-isobservational-
Cherry, K. (2019, November 15). Extrinsic motivation. Verywellmind.
Cherry, K. (2020, January 13). The 6 types of basic emotions and their effect on human
behavior. Verywellmind. https://www.verywellmind.com/an-overview-of-thetypes-
Collins. (n.d.). Performance. In Collins dictionary. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed
methods approaches (4th ed.). U.S.A.: SAGE Publications.
Crocker, L. & Algina, J. (2008). Introduction to classical and modern test theory (3rd
ed.). Ohio: Cengage Learning.
DeFranzo, S. E. (2012, August 15). 4 main benefits of survey research. Snap Surveys.
Dimitriadis, M. (2020). 12 ways to help students develop 21st century skills with
makers empire. Makers Empire. https://www.makersempire.com/developing-
Doble, Gerard T. (2018). The influence of individuals’ middle school, high school, and
undergraduate college music performance experiences on self- efficacy and
Perceptions of their own success as adults [Doctoral Disetation, Western
Connecticut State University]. Education Dissertations.
Ekman, P. (1999). Basic emotion. In T. Dalgleish & M.J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of
Cognition and Emotion (pp. xlv-lx). John Wiley & Sons.
Engle, J. (2020, March 11). Stress, worry and anxiety are all different. How do you
cope with each? The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com
Estrella, E. (2019, January 24). The Orff approach to music education for children.
Farnsworth-Grodd, V. A. (2012). Mindfulness and the self-regulation of music
performance anxiety [Doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland].
University of Auckland Research Repository – ResearchSpace.
Feltz, D. L., Short, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (2008). Self-efficacy in sport. U.S.A: Human
Freeman, J. R. (2004). Learning strategies. LD Online.
Franklin, N. (2018, June 14). Trinity’s piano technical work – developing the all-round
musician. Trinity College London.
Ganti, A. (2020, February 19). Correlation coefficient. Investopedia.
Ghazali Darusalam & Sufean Hussin (2016). Metodologi penyelidikan dalam
pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.
Gillespie, A., & Reader, T. W. (2021). Identifying and encouraging high-quality
healthcare: an analysis of the content and aims of patient letters of
compliment. BMJ quality & safety, 30(6), 484–492.
Gogus, A. (2012). Peer learning and assessment. In Encyclopedia of the Sciences of
Learning. (pp. 2572-2576). Boston, MA: Springer.
Goh, S. C. (2009). Preliminary study of approaches to learning and teaching selfefficacy
of student-teachers in Malaysia. Jurnal Pendidikan Bitara UPSI, 2(1),
Gouzouasis, P., & Henderson, A. (2012). Secondary student perspectives on musical
and educational outcomes from participation in band festivals. Music
Education Research, 14(4), 479-498. 10.1080/14613808.2012.714361
Green, L. (2014). Hear, listen, play: How to free your students' aural, improvisation and
performance skills. Psychology of Music 40(1), 42-65.
Haddon, E. (2013). Observational learning in the music masterclass. British Journal
of Music Education, 31, 55-68. 10.1017/S0265051713000223
Hanken, I. M. (2016). Peer learning in specialist higher music education. Arts &
Humanities in Higher Education, 15(3–4), 364–375.
Henson, R. K. (2001). Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: A
conceptual primer on coefficient alpha. Measurement and Evaluation in
Counseling and Development, 34(3), 177-189.
Ho, L. (2020). Why you have the fear of failure (and how to overcome it).
Holmes, J., & Brown, D. F. (1987). Teachers and students learning about compliment.
TESOL Quarterly, 21(3), 523-546. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586501
IGI Global. (n.d.). Verbal persuasion. In IGI-Global.com dictionary search. Retrieved
March 18, 2020, from https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/perceptions-ofteacher-
Ilse, R. M. L. (2016). The impact of self-efficacy enhancing techniques on student
self-efficacy beliefs (ProQuest NO. 10135045) [Doctoral Dissertation].
ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database.
Kaczmarek, L.D. (2017). Eudaimonic motivation. In Zeigler-Hill, V. & Shackelford, T.
(Ed.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences.
Karlsen, S. (2009). Learning through music festivals. International Journal of
Community Music, 2(2&3), 129-141. 10.1386/ijcm.2.2-3.129_1
Karlsen, S., & Brändström, S. (2008). Exploring the music festival as a music
educational project. International Journal of Music Education, 26(4), 363–
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2017). Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan
Pentaksiran Pendidikan Muzik Tingkatan 3.
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. (2020). Takwim utama sukan, kokurikulum dan
kesenian Tahun 2020.
Lamont, A. (2012). Emotion, engagement and meaning in strong experiences of
music performance. Psychology of Music, 40(5), 574–594.
Lawrence, E. M., Rogers, R. G., & Wadsworth, T. (2015). Happiness and longevity in
the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 145, 115–119.
Lenz, B. K., & Hughes, C. A. (1990). A word identification strategy for adolescents
with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(3), 149–158.
Lexico. (n.d.). Code. In Lexico.com. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from
Lexico. (n.d.). Music festival. In Lexico.com. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from
Lowe, G. M. (2018). Competition versus cooperation: Implications for music
teachers following students feedback from participation in a large-scale
cooperative music festival. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5),
Lund, A., & Lund, M. (2018). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Laerd Statistics.
Marano, H., E. (2004, March 1). The art of the compliment: Everyone needs to know
how to give and receive compliments. Psychology Today.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4),
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Matei, R. & Ginsborg, J. (2017). Music performance anxiety in classical musicians –
what we know about what works. BJPsych International, 14(2), 33-35.
Maynard, L. M. (2006). The role of repetition in the practice sessions of artist teachers
and their students. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education,
167, 61-72. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40319290
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Compliment. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved
March 18, 2020, from https://www.merriamwebster.
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Experience. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved
March 10, 2020, from https://www.merriamwebster.
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Mastery. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved
March 10, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mastery
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Social. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved
March 18, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social
McCormick, J. & McPherson, G. E. (2003). The role of self-efficacy in a musical
performance examination: an exploratory structural equation analysis.
Psychology of Music, 31(1), 37-51.
McDonald, M. [CliftonStrengths]. (2018, August 22). Heroes and stars among us:
The power of recognition (S6E31) [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.
McPherson, G. E. & McCormick, J. (2000). The contribution of motivational factors
to instrumental performance in a music examination. Research Studies in
Music Education, 15, 31-39.
McPherson, G. E. & Renwick, J. (2001). A longitudinal study of self-regulation in
children's musical practice. Music Education Research, 3, 169-186.
MindTools. (2020). Overcoming fear of failure facing your fear of moving forward.
Narkhede, S. (2018, June 8). Understanding descriptive statistics. Towards data science.
Nawaz Ahmad & Afsheen Rana. (2015). Impact of Music on Mood: Empirical
Investigation. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(21), 98-101.
Nichols, J. R. (2019, June 8). 4 essential rules of 21st century learning. Teach Thought.
Nielsen, S. G. (1999). Regulation of learning strategies during practice: A case study
of a single church organ student preparing a particular work for a concert
performance. Psychology of Music, 27, 218–229.
Nielsen, S. G., Johansen, G. G., & Jørgensen, H. (2018). Peer learning in instrumental
practicing. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 339. 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00339
Niles, L. (2012). What is the Suzuki Method? Violinist.com.
Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Human Learning (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Packer, J., & Ballantyne, J. (2011). The impact of music festival attendance on young
people’s psychological and social well-being. Psychology of Music, 39(2),
Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2012). What is psychology? (3rd ed.). Canada:
Pitts, S. (2012). Chances and choices exploring the impact of music education. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Rabideau, S. T. (2005, November). Effects of achievement motivation on behaviour.
Revilla, M. A., Saris, W. E. & Krosnick, J. A. (2014). Choosing the number of
categories in agree-disagree scales. Sociological Methods & Research, 43(1)
Robinson, J. (2006, November 9). In praise of praising your employees: Frequent
recognition is a surefire -- and affordable -- way to boost employee engagement.
Roden, I., Grube, D., Bongard, S., & Kreutz, G. (2013). Does music training enhance
working memory performance? Findings from a quasi-experimental
longitudinal study. Psychology of Music, 42(2), 284-298.
Salisu, A. & Ransom, E. (2014). The role of modeling towards impacting quality
education. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 32, 54-61.
Schein, C. (2014). The value of integrating social media tools into organizational
learning processes (UMI NO. 3611907) [Doctoral’s dissertation]. ProQuest
Dissertations & Theses database.
Schiffrin, H. H. & Nelson, S. K. (2008). Stressed and happy? Investigating the
relationship between happiness and perceived stress. Journal of Happiness
Studies, 11, 33-39. 10.1007/s10902-008-9104-7
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman,
S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio.
Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37).
Shaffer, D. R. (2000). Social and personality development (4th ed.). U.S.A.:
Share to know. (2017). https://youngfoundation.org/wpcontent/
Soto, K. (2017, September 13). Perfect practice makes perfect vs practice makes perfect.
Linked in. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/perfect-practice-makes-vskenny-
Stone, S. M. (2017). Observational learning. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved
from Encyclopædia Britannica, inc.
Talib Lawal. (2016, March 29). Learning does not only happen in classrooms.
Teachers Are Role Models. (n.d.). Teach.com. https://teach.com/what/teachers-arerole-
The Healthline Editorial Team. (2020, March 29). Stress and anxiety. Healthline.
Usher, E. L. & Pajares, F. (2009). Sources of self-efficacy in mathematics: A
validation study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 89-101.
Vandergriendt, C. (2018, September 18). What Is the Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion?
Weinstein, Y., & Smith, M. (2016, December 11). 6 powerful learning strategies you
must share with students. (J. Gonzalez, Interviewer). Cult of Pedagogy. https://
Weiser, D.A. & Riggio, H.R. (2010). Family background and academic achievement:
Does self-efficacy mediate outcomes? Social Psychology of Education, 13,
Whitbourne, S. K. (2013, May 11). 9 types of compliments and why they work (or not):
Improve your compliments with these 9 simple tips. Psychology Today.
Yoo, G. E., Kim, J., Choi, D. I., Yeo, M. S., Kim, S. J., & Na, S. (2020). Music
experience is associated with lower depression level and higher quality of life
among family caregivers of critically ill patients. Psychology of Music, 49(4),
Zandstra, M. (2017). Well done! The influence of compliments on performance
[Master thesis, Leiden University].
Zelenak, M. S. (2010). Development and validation of the music performance selfefficacy
scale. Music Education Research International, 4, 31-43.
Zelenak, M. S. (2011). Self-efficacy in music performance: Measuring the sources
among secondary school music students (UMI NO. 3466262) [Doctoral
dissertation, University of South Florida]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
Zhukov, K. (2009). Effective practising: A research perspective. Australian Journal of
Music Education, 1, 3-12.
Zimmer, D. (n.d.). A daily practice routine. UTC.edu.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary
Educational Psychology, 25, 82–91. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1016
|This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.|
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.