UPSI Digital Repository (UDRep)
Start | FAQ | About

QR Code Link :

Type :thesis
Subject :LB Theory and practice of education
Main Author :A'tiah Sakinah Abdul Rahman
Title :A case of using TPACK framework as a tool to evaluate a TESL pre service teacher education programme
Place of Production :Tanjong Malim
Publisher :Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi
Year of Publication :2022
Corporate Name :Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
PDF Guest :Click to view PDF file
PDF Full Text :Login required to access this item.

Abstract : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
This study aims to investigate a case study using the TPACK framework as a tool to evaluate a TESL pre-service teachers education programme. A qualitative approach with a case study design was selected for this study to examine the TPACK competencies level among pre-service teachers. In addition, the study is intended to explore the TESL pre-service teachers TPACK learning experiences in technology courses as well as to investigate on how TPACK has been integrated by TESL preservice teachers in their pedagogical skills. The data was collected using a questionnaire, observation of pre-service teachers, focus group interviews with the preservice teachers and lecturers teaching the technology course, and document analysis of course instructional planning. A class of thirty TESL pre-service teachers in a teacher education programme was chosen as the participants of the study using the purposive sampling method. The findings showed that TESL pre-service teachers are competent and had an average level of TPACK competencies. The findings from the interviews showed that pre-service teachers had the meaningful learning experience via active learning in which they had hands on teaching experience by bringing their own device. Furthermore, the TESL pre-service teachers has applied TPACK in developing the pedagogical skills through the use of technology integration of language content and pedagogical content knowledge. The study implicates that teacher education programmes should integrate the TPACK knowledge through technological courses. Pre-service teachers also are encouraged to equip themselves with Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). It is essential in fostering pedagogical improvement for education in twenty-first-century learning. It involves using technology that has identified ICT-based learning as a standard element across all twenty-first-century knowledge frameworks.


Abdullah, M. (2019). Leveraging the Use of Social Media in Teaching Writing: A Qualitative Investigation among ESL Pre-Service Teachers. iJIM, 13(11), 85.  

Adam, A. (2017). A framework for seeking the connections between technology, pedagogy and culture: A study in the Maldives. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 21(1), 35-51.  

Adams, D., & Muthiah, V. (2020). Teacher Education in Malaysia: Practices, Challenges and Future Trends for the Twenty-First Century Teacher Education in the Global Era (pp. 133-144): Springer. 

Admiraal, W., van Vugt, F., Kranenburg, F., Koster, B., Smit, B., Weijers, S., & Lockhorst, D. (2017). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into K–12 instruction: evaluation of a technology-infused approach. Technology, pedagogy and education, 26(1), 105-120.  

Agrawal, A. K., & Mittal, G. K. (2018). The role of ICT in higher education for the 21st century: ICT as a change agent for education. Multidisciplinary Higher Education, Research, Dynamics & Concepts: Opportunities & Challenges For Sustainable Development (ISBN 978-93-87662-12-4), 1(1), 76-83.  

Agyei, D., & Voogt, J. (2011). Determining Teachers’ TPACK through observations and self-report data. Paper presented at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. 

Al-Ruz, J. A., & Khasawneh, S. (2011). Jordanian pre-service teachers' and technology integration: A human resource development approach. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 14(4), 77-87.  

Alanko, A. (2018). Preparing pre-service teachers for home–school cooperation: exploring Finnish teacher education programmes. Journal of Education for tEaching, 44(3), 321-332.  

Almisad, B. (2020). The Degree of Achieving ISTE Standards among Pre-Service Teachers at" The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training"(PAAET) in Kuwait from Their Point of Views. World Journal of Education, 10(1), 69-80.  

Alsofyani, M. M., Eynon, R., & Majid, N. A. (2012). A preliminary evaluation of short blended online training workshop for TPACK development using technology acceptance model. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(3).  

Angrosino, M. (2007). Doing ethnographic and observational research: Sage. 

Augustine, N. (2018). Factors Influencing The Use Of Ict In Teaching Among Secondary School Teachers In Aba North District, Nigeria.  

Azhar, I. N. K., & Hashim, H. (2022). Level of ESL Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Skill and Attitude towards Technology. Creative Education, 13(4), 1193-1210.  

Baran, E., Canbazoglu Bilici, S., Albayrak Sari, A., & Tondeur, J. (2019). Investigating the impact of teacher education strategies on preservice teachers' TPACK. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 357-370.  

Bari, M., Djouab, R., & Hoa, C. P. (2018). Elearning current situation and emerging challenges. PEOPLE Int. J. Soc. Sci., 4(2).  

Barmore, J. (2017). Pre-Service Teacher Education: Connecting Teaching Principles to Teaching Practice. Harvard University.    

Barrett, D., & Twycross, A. (2018). Data collection in qualitative research: Royal College of Nursing. 

Batane, T., & Ngwako, A. (2017). Technology use by pre-service teachers during teaching practice: Are new teachers embracing technology right away in their first teaching experience? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1).  

Baz, E. H., Balçikanli, C., & Cephe, P. T. (2018). Introducing an innovative technology integration model: Echoes from EFL pre-service teachers. Education and Information Technologies, 23(5), 2179-2200.  

Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning (Vol. 711): routledge New York, NY. 

Betrus, A. (2012). Historical evolution of instructional technology in teacher education programs: A ten-year update. TechTrends, 56(5), 42-45.  

Bhattacharjee, B., & Deb, K. (2016). Role of ICT in 21st century’s teacher education. International Journal of Education and Information Studies, 6(1), 1-6.  

bin Darusalam, G., & Hussin, S. (2016). Metodologi penyelidikan dalam pendidikan: Amalan dan analisis kajian: Penerbit Universiti Malaya. 

Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments: A review of the literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 5(3), 235-245.  

Birkollu, S. S., Yucesoy, Y., Baglama, B., & Kanbul, S. (2017). Investigating the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards technology based on various variables. TEM Journal, 6(3), 578.  

Brenner, A. M., & Brill, J. M. (2016). Investigating practices in teacher education that promote and inhibit technology integration transfer in early career teachers. TechTrends, 60(2), 136-144.  

Britto, M. (2005). Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Integrate Technology: The Utility of the Intel “Teach to the Future” Program. Paper presented at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. 

Bueno-Alastuey, M. C., Villarreal, I., & García Esteban, S. (2018). Can telecollaboration contribute to the TPACK development of pre-service teachers? Technology, pedagogy and education, 27(3), 367-380.  

Cakir, R., & Solak, E. (2014). Exploring the Factors Influencing E-Learning of Turkish EFL Learners through TAM. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 13(3), 79-87.  

Campbell, C. M. (2017). An inside view: The utility of quantitative observation in understanding college educational experiences. Journal of College Student Development, 58(2), 290-299.  

Can, B., Erökten, S., & Bahtiyar, A. (2017). An investigation of pre-service science teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge.  

Candela, A. G. (2019). Exploring the function of member checking. The Qualitative Report, 24(3), 619-628.  

Cetin-Berber, D., & Erdem, A. R. (2015). An investigation of Turkish pre-service teachers’ technological, pedagogical and content knowledge. Computers, 4(3), 234-250.  

Chai, C. S., & Koh, J. H. L. (2017). Changing teachers’ TPACK and design beliefs through the Scaffolded TPACK Lesson Design Model (STLDM). Learning: research and Practice, 3(2), 114-129.  

Charbonneau-Gowdy, P. (2015). It Takes a Community to Develop a Teacher: Testing a New Teacher Education Model for Promoting ICT in Classroom Teaching Practices in Chile. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 13(4), 237-249.  

Chen, W., Lim, C., & Tan, A. (2010). Pre-service teachers’ ICT experiences and competencies: New generation of teachers in digital age. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. 

Ciptaningrum, D. S. (2017). The development of the survey of technology use, teaching, and technology-related learning experiences among pre-service English language teachers in Indonesia. Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, 2(2), 11-26.  

Cochran, K. F., DeRuiter, J. A., & King, R. A. (1993). Pedagogical content knowing: An integrative model for teacher preparation. Journal of teacher Education, 44(4), 263-272.  

Coggshall, J. G., Bivona, L., & Reschly, D. J. (2012). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Preparation Programs for Support and Accountability. Research & Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.  

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches: Sage publications. 

Darling-Hammond, L. (2016). Research on teaching and teacher education and its influences on policy and practice. Educational Researcher, 45(2), 83-91.  

Das, K. (2019). The role and impact of ICT in improving the quality of education: An overview. International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sociology and Humanities, 4(6), 97-103.  

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS quarterly, 319-340.  

Davis Jr, F. D. (1986). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.    

Davis, N. L., Gough, M., & Taylor, L. L. (2019). Online teaching: advantages, obstacles and tools for getting it right. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 19(3), 256-263.  

Demirkan, O. (2019). Pre-Service Teachers' Views about Digital Teaching Materials. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 14(1), 40-60.  

DeVellis, R. (2012). Scale development: theory and applications,(ed.) SAGE: Thousand Oaks: Calif. 

Dinsmore, J., & Wenger, K. (2006). Relationships in preservice teacher preparation: From cohorts to communities. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(1), 57-74.  

Don, Z. M., & Abdullah, M. H. (2019). What the CEFR is and isn’t. Free Malaysia Today.  

Donnelly, D., McGarr, O., & O’Reilly, J. (2011). A framework for teachers’ integration of ICT into their classroom practice. Computers & Education, 57(2), 1469-1483.  

Dumlao, R. P., & Pinatacan, J. R. (2019). From Practice to Writing: Using Reflective Journal Instruction in Enhancing Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Development. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 459-478.  

Earle, R. S. (2002). The integration of instructional technology into public education: Promises and challenges. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY-SADDLE BROOK THEN ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS NJ-, 42(1), 5-13.  

Easter, T. N. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers and technology literacy. Washington State University.    

Ekrem, S., & Recep, Ç. (2014). Examining Preservice EFL Teachers' TPACK Competencies in Turkey. Journal of Educators Online, 11(2).  

Ersanli, C. Y. (2016). Improving Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of Pre-Service English Language Teachers. International Education Studies, 9(5), 18.  

Farjon, D., Smits, A., & Voogt, J. (2019). Technology integration of pre-service teachers explained by attitudes and beliefs, competency, access, and experience. Computers & education, 130, 81-93.  

Fathi, J., & Yousefifard, S. (2019). Assessing language teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): EFL students’ perspectives. Research in English Language Pedagogy, 7(2), 255-282.  

Feijóo, C., Ramos, S., Armuña, C., Arenal, A., & Gómez-Barroso, J.-L. (2018). A study on the deployment of high-speed broadband networks in NUTS3 regions within the framework of digital agenda for Europe. Telecommunications Policy, 42(9), 682-699.  

Feiman-Nemser, S., & Buchmann, M. (1986). The first year of teacher preparation: Transition to pedagogical thinking? Journal of curriculum studies, 18(3), 239-256.  

Ganapathy, M. (2016). Transformation of Malaysia’s higher education system: Malaysia Education Blueprint (2015-2025). Bulletin of Higher Education Research, 5(1), 10-11.  

Gavillet, R. (2018). Experiential learning and its impact on college students. Texas Education Review.  

Ghazali, D., & Sufean, H. (2016). Metodologi penyelidikan dalam pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.  

Goldstein, O., & Tessler, B. (2017). The impact of the national program to integrate ICT in teaching in pre-service teacher training. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 13(1), 151-166.  

Gros, B. (2016). The dialogue between emerging pedagogies and emerging technologies The Future of ubiquitous learning (pp. 3-23): Springer. 

Grossman, P. L (1990) The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education: New York: Teachers College Press, Teachers College, Columbia University. 

Gudmundsdottir, G. B., & Hatlevik, O. E. (2018). Newly qualified teachers’ professional digital competence: implications for teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 214-231.  

Gur, H. (2015). A short review of TPACK for teacher education. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(7), 777-789.  

Gustafsson, J. (2017). Single case studies vs. multiple case studies: A comparative study. 

Han, I., Eom, M., & Shin, W. S. (2013). Multimedia case-based learning to enhance pre-service teachers' knowledge integration for teaching with technologies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 34, 122-129.  

Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2009). What Makes for a Good Teacher and Who Can Tell? Working Paper 30. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research.  

Harris, J., Grandgenett, N., & Hofer, M. (2010). Testing a TPACK-based technology integration assessment rubric. Paper presented at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. 

Harun, R. N. S. R. (2020). The 3E (engages, empowers, and emancipates): ESL teacher education curriculum in the development of future teachers Localizing Global English (pp. 104-124): Routledge. 

Hashemi, A. (2021). The barriers to the use of ICT in english language teaching: A systematic literature review. Bilgi ve Iletisim Teknolojileri Dergisi, 3(1), 77-88.  

Heitink, M., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., Verplanken, L., & van Braak, J. (2017). Eliciting teachers’ technological pedagogical knowledge. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3).  

Howard, S. K., Tondeur, J., Ma, J., & Yang, J. (2019). Seeing the wood for the trees: Insights into the complexity of developing pre-service teachers’ digital competencies for future teaching.  

Howey, K. R., & Grossman, P. L. (1989). A study in contrast: Sources of pedagogical content knowledge for secondary English. Journal of teacher Education, 40(5), 24-31.  

Hsu, P.-S. (2013). Examining changes of preservice teachers’ beliefs about technology integration during student teaching. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 21(1), 27-48.  

Ince, B. H. (2019). Empowering Novice Teachers Through Blended Feedback Examining the Teacher Induction Process in Contemporary Education Systems (pp. 112-142): IGI Global. 

Instefjord, E., & Munthe, E. (2016). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology: an analysis of the emphasis on digital competence in teacher education curricula. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 77-93.  

Irvine, V., & Montgomerie, T. C. (2001). A Survey of Current Computer Skill Standards and Implications for Teacher Education.  

Jaipal-Jamani, K., & Figg, C. (2015). A case study of a TPACK-based approach to teacher professional development: Teaching science with blogs. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 15(2), 161-200.  

Jalani, G., Hussain, S., Amin, N., & Hussain, D. (2021). Self-Assessment of Prospective Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(1), 97-116.  

Janssen, N., Knoef, M., & Lazonder, A. W. (2019). Technological and pedagogical support for pre-service teachers’ lesson planning. Technology, pedagogy and education, 28(1), 115-128.  

Joo, Y. J., Park, S., & Lim, E. (2018). Factors influencing preservice teachers’ intention to use technology: TPACK, teacher self-efficacy, and technology acceptance model. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 21(3), 48-59.  

Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2012). New learning: a charter for change in education. Critical Studies in Education, 53(1), 83-94.  

Kay, R. H. (2006). Evaluating strategies used to incorporate technology into preservice education: A review of the literature. Journal of research on technology in education, 38(4), 383-408.  

Kim, H. J., & Jang, H. Y. (2015). Motivating pre-service teachers in technology integration of web 2.0 for teaching internships. International Education Studies, 8(8), 21-32.  

Kimm, C. H., Kim, J., Baek, E.-O., & Chen, P. (2020). Pre-service Teachers’ Confidence in their ISTE Technology-Competency. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 36(2), 96-110.  

Kirschner, P., Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2008). Benchmarks for teacher education programs in the pedagogical use of ICT International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 435-447): Springer. 

Kirschner, P. A., & De Bruyckere, P. (2017). The myths of the digital native and the multitasker. Teaching and Teacher Education, 67, 135-142.  

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.  

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2013). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Journal of education, 193(3), 13-19.  

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Kereluik, K., Shin, T. S., & Graham, C. R. (2014). The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 101-111): Springer. 

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Yahya, K. (2007). Tracing the development of teacher knowledge in a design seminar: Integrating content, pedagogy and technology. Computers & education, 49(3), 740-762.  

Koh, J. H., & Divaharan, H. (2011). Developing pre-service teachers' technology integration expertise through the TPACK-developing instructional model. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(1), 35-58.  

Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., & Tsai, C.-C. (2013). Examining practicing teachers’ perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) pathways: A structural equation modeling approach. Instructional Science, 41(4), 793-809.  

Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development: FT press. 

Kozikoglu, I., & Babacan, N. (2019). The investigation of the relationship between Turkish EFL teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge skills and 

attitudes towards technology. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(1), 20-33.  

Kurt, G., Akyel, A., Koçoglu, Z., & Mishra, P. (2014). TPACK in practice: A qualitative study on technology integrated lesson planning and implementation of Turkish pre-service teachers of English. ELT Research Journal, 3(3), 153-166.  

Kurt, G., Mishra, P., & Kocoglu, Z. (2013). Technological pedagogical content knowledge development of Turkish pre-service teachers of English. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, New Orleans, LA. Retrieved from http://punya. educ. msu. edu/wpcontent/uploads/2013/03/Kurt-Mishra-SITE2013-paper. pdf. 

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2007). Introduction to interview research. Doing interviews, 2-11.  

Lai, H.-M., Hsiao, Y.-L., & Hsieh, P.-J. (2018). The role of motivation, ability, and opportunity in university teachers’ continuance use intention for flipped teaching. Computers & education, 124, 37-50.  

Lai Wah, L., & Hashim, H. (2021). Determining Pre-Service Teachers’ Intention of Using Technology for Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL). Sustainability, 13(14), 7568.  

Lawrence, J. E., & Tar, U. A. (2018). Factors that influence teachers’ adoption and integration of ICT in teaching/learning process. Educational Media International, 55(1), 79-105.  

Le, N., & Song, J. (2018). TPACK in a CALL Course and its Effect on Vietnamese Pre-service EFL Teachers1. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 31.  

Lee, J., & Park, H.-K. (2016). A Study on cases for application of flipped learning in K-12 education. Journal of Digital Convergence, 14(8), 19-36.  

Li, Y., Garza, V., Keicher, A., & Popov, V. (2019). Predicting high school teacher use of technology: Pedagogical beliefs, technological beliefs and attitudes, and teacher training. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 24(3), 501-518.  

List, A., Brante, E. W., & Klee, H. L. (2020). A framework of pre-service teachers’ conceptions about digital literacy: Comparing the United States and Sweden. Computers & education, 148, 103788.  

Liu, S.-H. (2011). Modeling pre-service teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes toward, and intentions for technology integration. Paper presented at the EdMedia+ Innovate Learning. 

Liu, S.-H. (2012). A multivariate model of factors influencing technology use by preservice teachers during practice teaching. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 137-149.  

Liu, S., Liu, H., Yu, Y., Li, Y., & Wen, T. (2014). TPACK: A new dimension to EFL teachers’ PCK. Journal of Education and Human Development, 3(2), 681-693.  

Loughran, J., Mulhall, P., & Berry, A. (2008). Exploring pedagogical content knowledge in science teacher education. International Journal of Science Education, 30(10), 1301-1320.  

Lynch, T., Hicks, T., Bartels, J., Beach, R., Connors, S., Damico, N., & Zucker, L. (2018). Beliefs for integrating technology into the English Language Arts classroom: National Council of Teachers of English. http://www2. ncte. org/statement …. 

Lysenko, V. (2018). The information and communication technology in education.  

Mahdum, M. (2015). Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) of English Teachers in Pekanbaru, Riau, Indonesia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(5), 168.  

Maor, D., & Currie, J. K. (2017). The use of technology in postgraduate supervision pedagogy in two Australian universities. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(1), 1-15.  

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2014). Designing qualitative research: Sage publications. 

Martinovic, D., & Zhang, Z. (2012). Situating ICT in the teacher education program: Overcoming challenges, fulfilling expectations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(3), 461-469.  

Meisalo, V., Lavonen, J., Sormunen, K., & Vesisenaho, M. (2011). ICT in Finnish initial teacher education: Country report for the OECD/CERI New Millennium Learners Project ICT in Initial Teacher Training. 1799-0343.  

Merriam, S. B., & Grenier, R. S. (2019). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis: John Wiley & Sons. 

Minott, M. A., & Young, A. E. (2009). The benefits of employing a hybrid evaluation approach, enacted through evaluation survey and reflective journaling in teacher education in the Cayman Islands. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 34(4), 16-26.  

Mishra, M., Sharma, V. K., & Tripathi, R. (2010). ICT as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Respect of Learner with Disability.  

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college record, 108(6), 1017-1054.  

Mouza, C. (2018). The role of teachers in teaching and learning with technology. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 18(3), 491-493.  

Mugot, D. C., & Sumbalan, E. B. (2019). The 21 st Century Learning Skills and Teaching Practices of Pre-Service Teachers: Implication to the New Philippine Teacher Education Curriculum. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Publications (IJMRAP), 2(1), 22-28.  

Muniandy, B., & Veloo, S. (2011). Managing and utilizing online video clips for teaching English language: Views of TESOL pre service teachers. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Education and Management Technology IPCSIT. 

O'Neal, L. J., Gibson, P., & Cotten, S. R. (2017). Elementary school teachers' beliefs about the role of technology in 21st-century teaching and learning. Computers in the Schools, 34(3), 192-206.  

O’Leary, Z. (2014). Primary data: Surveys, interviews and observation. The essential guide to doing your research project, 201-216.  

Oladosu, K., Abd-el-Aziz, A., IBIRONKE, E., Alasan, N., & Makanjuola, T. (2020). Pre-Service Teachers Perceived Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge And Self-Efficacy On The Use Of Information And Communication Technology. International Journal of Innovative Technology Integration in Education, 4(1), 61-69.  

Olofsson, A. D., Lindberg, J. O., Fransson, G., & Hauge, T. E. (2011). Uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools–a thematic review of research. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 10(Jubileumsnummer), 103-121.  

Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Glazewski, K. D., Newby, T. J., & Ertmer, P. A. (2010). Teacher value beliefs associated with using technology: Addressing professional and student needs. Computers & education, 55(3), 1321-1335.  

Öz, H. (2015). Assessing Pre-service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. International Education Studies, 8(5), 119.  

Ozkan, K. (2014). Measuring technology acceptance level of Turkish pre-service English teachers by using technology acceptance model. Educational Research and Reviews, 9(23), 1323-1333.  

Paine, L., Aydarova, E., & Syahril, I. (2017). Globalization and teacher education. Handbook of research on teacher education, 2.  

Pamuk, S. (2012). Understanding preservice teachers' technology use through TPACK framework. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(5), 425-439.  

Park, M., & Son, J.-B. (2020). Pre-service EFL teachers’ readiness in computer-assisted language learning and teaching. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 1-15.  

Polly, D., & Brantley-Dias, L. (2009). TPACK: Where do we go now? TechTrends, 53(5), 46.  

Raman, K., & Yamat, H. (2014). Barriers teachers face in integrating ICT during English lessons: A case study. Malaysian Online journal of educational technology, 2(3), 11-19.  

Ranellucci, J., Rosenberg, J. M., & Poitras, E. G. (2020). Exploring pre-service teachers' use of technology: The technology acceptance model and expectancy–value theory. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 36(6), 810-824.  

Redmond, P., & Lock, J. (2019). Secondary pre-service teachers’ perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): What do they really think? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(3).  

Robroo, I. (2019). The effect of using e-learning for enhancing active learning of pre-service teachers. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 9(11), 803.  

Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2011). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data: sage. 

Rusli, R., Hashim, H., Yunus, M. M., Khairani Zakaria, N. Y., & Norman, H. (2019). Leveraging the Use of Social Media in Teaching Writing: A Qualitative Investigation among ESL Pre-Service Teachers. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 13(11).  

Sahin, I. (2011). Development of survey of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(1).  

Sánchez-García, A.-B., Marcos, J.-J. M., GuanLin, H., & Escribano, J. P. (2013). Teacher development and ICT: The effectiveness of a training program for in-service school teachers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 92, 529-534.  

Sang, G., Valcke, M., Van Braak, J., & Tondeur, J. (2010). Student teachers’ thinking processes and ICT integration: Predictors of prospective teaching behaviors with educational technology. Computers & education, 54(1), 103-112.  

Saran, S., Chapman, T., & Sharma, M. (2018). A New Social Contract for the Digital Age. Retrieved from  

Saravanakumar, A. (2018). Role of ICT on Enhancing Quality of Education. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 3(12), 717-719.  

Scherer, R., Tondeur, J., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2018). The importance of attitudes toward technology for pre-service teachers' technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge: Comparing structural equation modeling approaches. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 67-80.  

Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) the development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of research on technology in education, 42(2), 123-149.  

Shin, T., Koehler, M., Mishra, P., Schmidt, D., Baran, E., & Thompson, A. (2009). Changing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through course experiences. Paper presented at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. 

Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard educational review, 57(1), 1-23.  

Singh, C. K. S., & Kasim, Z. M. (2019). Pre-service teachers' mastery of technological pedagogical content knowledge for teaching English language. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(10A), 24-29.  

Smith, J. J., & Greene, H. C. (2013). Pre-service teachers use e-learning technologies to enhance their learning. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 12(1), 121-140.  

Sultan, S. (2020). Importance of Pre-Service Teacher Training and Need of Time to Strengthen at National Level. sjesr, 3(3), 326-334.  

Susanty, R., Yunos, Z., Ahmad, M., & Razali, N. (2019). Instilling Digital Citizenship Skills Through Education: A Malaysian Perspective. Paper presented at the European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security. 

Swallow, M. J., & Olofson, M. W. (2017). Contextual understandings in the TPACK framework. Journal of research on technology in education, 49(3-4), 228-244.  

Tai, S.-J. D. (2013). From TPACK-in-action workshops to English classrooms: CALL competencies developed and adopted into classroom teaching.  

Tee, M. Y., Samuel, M., Nor, N. M., Sathasivam, R. V., & Zulnaidi, H. (2018). Classroom practice and the quality of teaching: Where a nation is going. Journal of International and Comparative Education (JICE), 17-33.  

Theelen, H. (2021). Looking around in the classroom: Developing preservice teachers’ interpersonal competence with classroom simulations. Wageningen University.    

Thompson, A. D., & Mishra, P. (2007). Editors' remarks: Breaking news: TPCK becomes TPACK! Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 24(2), 38-64.  

Tondeur, J. (2018). Enhancing future teachers’ competencies for technology integration in education: Turning theory into practice. Paper presented at the Seminar. net. 

Tondeur, J., Aesaert, K., Pynoo, B., van Braak, J., Fraeyman, N., & Erstad, O. (2017). Developing a validated instrument to measure preservice teachers’ ICT competencies: Meeting the demands of the 21st century. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(2), 462-472.  

Tondeur, J., Pareja Roblin, N., van Braak, J., Voogt, J., & Prestridge, S. (2017). Preparing beginning teachers for technology integration in education: Ready for take-off? Technology, pedagogy and education, 26(2), 157-177.  

Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2017). A comprehensive investigation of TPACK within pre-service teachers’ ICT profiles: Mind the gap! Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3).  

Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2020). Enhancing pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): A mixed-method study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(1), 319-343.  

Tondeur, J., Van Braak, J., Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2017). Understanding the relationship between teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education: a systematic review of qualitative evidence. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(3), 555-575.  

Traianou, A., & Hammersley, M. (2021). Is there a right not to be researched? Is there a right to do research? Some questions about informed consent and the principle of autonomy. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 24(4), 443-452.  

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Gareis, C. R. (2004). Principals' sense of efficacy. Journal of Educational administration.  

Valtonen, T., Sointu, E., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Lambert, M. C., & Mäkitalo-Siegl, K. (2017). TPACK updated to measure pre-service teachers’ twenty-first century skills. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3).  

Van Den Dool, P., & Kirschner, P. (2003). Integrating the Educative Functions of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in teachers' and learners' toolboxes: a reflection on pedagogical benchmarks for ICT in teacher education. Technology, pedagogy and education, 12(1), 161-179.  

Van Driel, J. H., Beijaard, D., & Verloop, N. (2001). Professional development and reform in science education: The role of teachers' practical knowledge. Journal of Research in Science teaching, 38(2), 137-158.  

Villa, G. (2017). e-Learning culture: Operationalization of a systemic model to support ICT-integration in pre-service teacher trainers’ practice.  

Voogt, J., Fisser, P., Pareja Roblin, N., Tondeur, J., & van Braak, J. (2013). Technological pedagogical content knowledge–a review of the literature. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(2), 109-121.  

Voogt, J., & McKenney, S. (2017). TPACK in teacher education: Are we preparing teachers to use technology for early literacy? Technology, pedagogy and education, 26(1), 69-83.  

Wade, M. V. (2006). Likert-type scale response anchors. Clemson International Institute for Tourism & Research Development, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University.  

Weitze, C. L. (2017). Designing pedagogical innovation for collaborating teacher teams. Journal of Education for tEaching, 43(3), 361-373.  

Wen, H., & Shinas, V. H. (2020). Using a multidimensional approach to examine TPACK among teacher candidates. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 37(1), 30-47.  

Wilhelmsen, J., Ørnes, H., Kristiansen, T., & Breivik, J. (2009). Digitale utfordringer i høyere utdanning. Norgesuniversitetets IKT-monitor, 1, 2009.  

Woolf, S. B. (2019). Critical skills for special educator effectiveness: Which ones matter most, and to whom? Teacher Education and Special Education, 42(2), 132-146.  

Xiong, X. B., & Lim, C. P. (2015). Rethinking the impacts of teacher education program on building the ICT in education competencies of pre-service teachers: A case of teacher education in mainland China.  

Yamat, H., Kaur, K., & Singh, P. K. (2016). What Primary School Teachers Say About Their Beliefs on Teaching and Learning of English as a Second Language (ESL)(Apa yang Diperkatakan oleh Guru Sekolah Rendah Mengenai Kepercayaan Mereka terhadap Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggeris Sebagai Bahasa Kedua). Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia (Malaysian Journal of Education), 41(2), 125-130.  

Yin, R. K. (2009). How to do better case studies. The SAGE handbook of applied social research methods, 2(254-282).  

Yuen Fook, C., Sidhu, G. K., Kamar, N., & Abdul Aziz, N. (2011). Pre-Service Teachers' Training in Information Communication and Technology for the ESL Classrooms in Malaysia. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 97-108.  

Yunus, M. M. (2007). Malaysian ESL teachers’ use of ICT in their classrooms: expectations and realities. ReCALL, 19(1), 79-95.  

Yunus, M. M., & Suliman, A. (2014). Information & communication technology (ICT) tools in teaching and learning literature component in Malaysian secondary schools. Asian Social Science, 10(7), 136.  



This material may be protected under Copyright Act which governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials.
You may use the digitized material for private study, scholarship, or research.

Back to previous page

Installed and configured by Bahagian Automasi, Perpustakaan Tuanku Bainun, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
If you have enquiries with this repository, kindly contact us at or Whatsapp +60163630263 (Office hours only)